The Development of Educational Policy and Planning. Learner is able to explain: The Development of EP Philosophical Approach of EP Changes in Conception of EP Issues in Educational Planning Types of Educational Planning. The Development of Educational Policy and Planning.
Learner is able to explain:
The Development of EP
Philosophical Approach of EP
Changes in Conception of EP
Issues in Educational Planning
Types of Educational Planning
The aims of life have influenced social and educational planning.
It centerson the tension between individual freedom and societal development.
During ancient times, Sparta developed an educational system to suit especially the defense, social and economic needs of the society.
Plato in “The Republic” proposes that education is for the society; individuals should be educated to become members of the society.
In China, the examination system has been used to screen for civil service positions, and this practice lasted for millennia.
More systematic educational planning began when the Union of Socialist Soviet Russia (USSR) developed a Five Year Development Plan in 1923, after the revolution in 1917.
USSR started the establishment of an educational planning unit as a state mechanism in carrying out her development plan.
As a result of WWII, most nation states, especially the European and North American, consider educational planning as a necessity and as a mechanism to solve post-war related problems such as population growth due to the baby boom.
There was a high demand for jobs, and thus job related training.
Education Acts introduced in England in 1944, gave the Local Education Authorities (LEA) the mandate to plan their own education.
In 1953, France introduced her own National Planning, including education.
For Malaysia, it was the Razak Report 1955, the Rahman Talib Report in 1961 and the Education Act 1996.
In fact, the number of educational planning centres mushroomed after WWII, providing a much wider and systematic planning of education to suite local needs.
The Asian Institute of Educational Planning and Administration was established in New Delhi in 1962.
The International Institute of Educational Planning (IIEP), UNESCO was established in 1962.
Thus, early educational planning has been characteristically based on demographic, social, economic, political as well as manpower approaches.
However, the growth and expansion of democracy and capitalism later stimulated economic based educational planning approaches such as cost benefit and cost effectiveness.
This later movement was echoed by the success of corporate planning especially in the production sector such as automobile production in Detroit.
Educational planning reached its golden era from 1973 to 1981.
Based on states:
1. Socialist Nations
2. Capitalist Nations
3. Developing Nations
Led by the USSR and China
It emphasized manpower development
Used a centralized, top-down, directive approach
Collapsed, became decentralized, since 1989
Ledby Western Europe & North American states
Used the market economy approach
Due to the urgent demand for reconstruction of the state economy and baby boom as a result of WWII, required a huge sum of financing
Decentralized, indicative and a loose central government control
Mostly achieved their independence in the 1950s and 1960s.
A need for nation-building.
At first, model their EP on the manpower-socialist approach
Dependent on their former colonial masters due to the shortage of expertise
Lately, followed the market approach due to the collapse of thesocialist model
1. Planning for change is more difficult than early expectations: the case of USSR and IRAN. Example: education through tape recorder.
2. Innovation takes time than expected.
3. Difficult to achieve the planned objective especially when it is big in size, top-down implementation, but it seems to be easier for reform and innovation to take place at the bottom - the school level.
4.The collapse of beliefs that innovation is a means of control by the state which dictates what students ought to learn.
1. From quantitative to quality; ISO.
2. From emphasizing centralised to decentralised and equal involvement.
3. Focuses more on incentives, market forces, privatisation, out-of-school and non-formal education.
4. Increasing job related training.
5. Increasing non-governmental agencies’ involvement; eg. Brain Trust.
6. Increasing adult education program.
Farrell (1997: p. 279) suggests: based on demographic, social, economic, political as well as manpower approaches.
“… a new conception of EP that focuses less on planning change and more on developing a capacity to innovate and that conceives planning not as controlling learning but as enabling it.”
UNESCO 1990, The World Conference on Education for All. Jomtien, Thailand, 5-9 March 1990.
UNESCO 2000, The World Education Forum for Lifelong Education. Dakar, Senegal, April 2000.
1. Technical Approach:
Utilizing “hard” quantitative data, complex statistical analyses, research results and “rational” or “scientific” analysis.
Tend to operate from a general consensus or equilibrium model of society.
2. Political Approach:
Utilizing “soft” data. Tends to work from a variety or another conflict theory
3. Mixed Approach: based on demographic, social, economic, political as well as manpower approaches.
Successful educational planners must be highly skilled political and technical operatives.
Planning process must take into account the varying stakeholder groups.
Called “participatory”, “transactive” or “interactive” planning such as strategic planning (a win-win situation)
1. Top-Down Approach:
Decisions on EP are made by high-level actors within the educational system
Use directives, especially in a fidelity model of educational system
Little involvement of lower-level actors within the educational system
Little exercise of flexibility in implementing the decisions
Works well in the short-term
Create resentments & resistances w/in the system
Make future planseven more difficult
Practicality Ethics based on demographic, social, economic, political as well as manpower approaches. (Doyle & Ponder 1977):
Only practical innovations will be implemented in the classroom.
Coping Strategies (Andy Hargreaves 1978):
To cope with societal and central demands, the teacher establishes strategies that can make her/his life bearable, possible and even rewarding as an educational practitioner.
2. Bottom-Up Approach: based on demographic, social, economic, political as well as manpower approaches.
Decisions on EP are made by the lower-level actors (teacher, school principal)
Flexibility in implementing decisions
Needs support from colleagues, school and education authorities
Works well in thelong-term, except issues related to inventor mortality
1. Comprehensive EP
2. Adaptive EP
3. Contingency EP
4. Compulsive EP
5. Manipulative EP
6. Indicative EP
7. Incremental EP
8. Autonomous EP
9. Ameliorative EP
10. Functional EP
11. Educational Programming
A long range planning, takes 25-40 years
General and comprehensive in nature
To provide a guideline to be followed by other related fields; on the use of educational resources, on how to monitor and evaluate educational progress and problems.
E.g Wawasan 2020
To adapt current practices as a result of reaction from external development
Problem solving in the narrowest sense
To ensure organizational equilibrium
Example: Introduction of English in the Teaching of Science and Mathematics
As a means to absorb emergency with minimum inconvenience
Example: contingency examination centres during the monsoon season
A detailedaccount on what should be done
Rigid, but necessary
Motivational instrument: congratulation if successful and punishment if failed
Example: school finances
Manipulating various strategies and instruments to get maximum results
Among the strategies used: deals, trades and personal inducements
Example: school cooperatives
Giving the right signals in the hope that they (the actors) in turn will take appropriate actions
Instrument: Check list
E.g. PTA activities
Is planning that takes short steps, correcting mistakes as it proceeds
Such a process, while constituting acceptable short-term adaptability, is accumulative in nature
A sufficient body of mistakes will force the planner to take a completely comprehensive approach.
On the other hand, such planning, if successful, should accumulate a sufficient body of experience to enable the educational planners to attempt comprehensive planning
Is planning pursued by itself and not as a part of any other planning.
Example: theteacher might exercise her/his own teaching strategies.
To put things in their original form without considering what would happen.
Its aim is to return to the status quo.
E.g. School fee
Focuseson a particular aspect of the total educational problem.
Essentially, this type of planning is segmented in nature, but still functions as a part of the total planning effort
Example: education for special children
Specifies the target groups, the program requirement, and the resources needed to achieve a specific objective.
Example: tuition classes