Research Methodology ASR702. By Reaz Uddin , Ph. D. Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi. Course Contents. Public Safety (Dr. Raza Shah) (2 classes)
Reaz Uddin, Ph. D.
Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research,
International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences,
University of Karachi
What principles underpin ethical behaviour? What does it mean to be ethical?
Is “pure” research above ethics and morality?
Is ethics and morality to do with technology and politics (the appliance of research) not research itself?
Facts can only be recorded in the framework of a theory.
The history, the environment, the culture, the politics, the religion, the personality of the scientist all influence the theory and therefore the facts recorded.
Research cannot be isolated from society and an ethical system
Which is brighter, a snowball seen indoors or a lump of coal outside?
A bright, sunlit day is about one hundred times brighter than a room lit by electric light. If we use a light meter to measure the absolute number of photons being reflected, the outdoor coal registers a higher value than the indoor snowball. The coal is brighter, and more photons are hitting your retina, sending a stronger signal to your brain.
“Get your facts first, and then you can distort them as much as you please.”
Mark Twain (1835 - 1910)
“If the facts don't fit the theory, change the fact.” Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955)
“There are no facts, only interpretations.”
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844 - 1900)
“Science is facts; just as houses are made of stones, so is science made of facts; but a pile of stones is not a house and a collection of facts is not necessarily science.”
Henri Poincare (1854 - 1912)
“The important thing in science is not so much to obtain new facts as to discover new ways of thinking about them.”
Sir William Bragg (1862 - 1942)
“We want the facts to fit the preconceptions. When they don't, it is easier to ignore the facts than to change the preconceptions.”
Jassamyn West (1907–1984)
It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts.
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859 - 1930)
SOCIETY much as you please.”
Because research has a profound influence on society scientists cannot ignore the consequences of their discoveries
I’m damned if they are going
to make me redundant
What do you do if you bump into a research participant in Wal-Mart?
Bottom Line: Cite sources properly and minimize quotations in research reports