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HIST 202 - HESEN. A New Era: The TWENTIES. “The War to End All Wars”. WWI ends November 11, 1918 Wilson’s Plans for Peace: Fourteen Points League of Nations Irreconcilables Reservationists. Wilson’s Plans for Peace. Treaty of Versailles Big Four U.S. (Wilson)

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A New Era: The TWENTIES

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Hist 202 hesen

HIST 202 - HESEN

A New Era: The TWENTIES


The war to end all wars

“The War to End All Wars”

  • WWI ends November 11, 1918

  • Wilson’s Plans for Peace:

    • Fourteen Points

    • League of Nations

      • Irreconcilables

      • Reservationists


Wilson s plans for peace

Wilson’s Plans for Peace

  • Treaty of Versailles

    • Big Four

      • U.S. (Wilson)

      • Great Britain (David Lloyd George)

      • France (Georges Clemenceau)

      • Italy (Vittorio Orlando)

      • NO RUSSIA!!!!


Postwar problems

Postwar Problems

  • Postwar

    • Red Scare

      • A. Mitchell Palmer

      • “Palmer Raids”

    • Strikes of 1919

      • Boston Police Strike (MA)

      • Calvin Coolidge

    • Tulsa Race Riot (1921)

      • Dick Rowland


Return to normalcy

Return to Normalcy

  • Republican Control

    • Wilson dies

    • Republicans rule the 1920s

      • Warren G. Harding

        • “Normalcy”

      • Calvin Coolidge

      • Herbert Hoover

      • Focus is on business – “The business of American is business”


Warren g harding

Warren G. Harding

  • Won Election of 1920

  • Former newspaper editor from Ohio

    • Practiced patronage

    • “Ohio Gang”

    • Teapot Dome Scandal

    • Pardoned Eugene V. Debs


Domestic policies

Domestic Policies

  • Reduction of income tax

  • Established Bureau of the Budget

    • Centralized federal budget

  • Increase in tariff rates

    • Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922)


Harding s death

Harding’s Death

  • Harding administration was fraught with scandal

  • He was at the center of the problems

  • White House – promiscuity

  • Died unexpectedly in August 1923


Calvin coolidge

Calvin Coolidge

  • Becomes president after Harding dies

  • Wins election of 1924 because he was popular with business

  • Took on a new way of looking at laissez faire practices


Coolidge s vetoes and inaction

Coolidge’s Vetoes and Inaction

  • Believed in limited government

  • Laissez-faire

  • Focused on the budget

  • Vetoed bills that offered bonuses to WWI vets

  • Vetoed McNary-Haugen Bill (1928) – refused to help farmers


Election of 1928

Election of 1928

  • Coolidge declined to run for president again

  • Tickets:

    • Herbert Hoover (R)

    • Alfred E. Smith (D)

    • Americans went with the Republicans because of PROSPERITY


Mixed economic development

Mixed Economic Development

  • Causes for prosperity

    • Increased productivity

    • Energy technologies

    • Government policies

  • Problems:

    • Labor

      • Open shop

    • Farmers


A new culture

A New Culture

  • Consumerism

    • People bought goods….even if they didn’t need them

  • Gender Roles

    • Flappers

  • Religion

    • Revivalism – Aimee Semple McPherson


Cultures in conflict

Cultures in Conflict

  • Fundamentalism

    • John Scopes Trial

    • Evolution vs. Scripture

    • Clarence Darrow (ACLU) vs. William Jennings Bryan

  • Prohibition

    • 18th Amendment

    • Volstead Act

    • Sale, distribution, manufacture of “intoxicating liquors”


Cultures in conflict1

Cultures in Conflict

  • Nativism/Xenophobia

    • Quota Law (1921)

    • Eastern Europeans and Asians

    • Nicola Sacco and Bartolommeo Vanzetti

  • Ku Klux Klan

    • Political organization

    • Executions


War debts and reparations

War Debts and Reparations

  • War-guilt clause (1918)

    • Blame Germany for WWI

    • Owes $30 billion to Allied Powers (GB and France)

    • Dawes Plan (1924)

      • U.S. lends money to Germany to pay back Great Britain and France

      • Leads ultimately to the Great Depression


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