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* For best quality, please view in slideshow format. Secondary Applications of RTI: A Guided Discussion Donald D. Deshler University of Kansas Joseph F. Kovaleski Indiana University of Pennsylvania December 7, 2007. Goals of Today’s Session.

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Secondary Applications of RTI: A Guided DiscussionDonald D. DeshlerUniversity of KansasJoseph F. KovaleskiIndiana University of PennsylvaniaDecember 7, 2007


Goals of today s session

Goals of Today’s Session

  • Identify key features and critical issues related to implementing RTI at the secondary level.

  • Engage participants in sharing information and ideas about secondary applications of RTI.

  • Keep track of ideas and share with participants.


Nclb and idea 2004

NCLB AND IDEA 2004

  • Scientifically based instruction, curriculum, and interventions

  • Identification of learning problems early

  • Ongoing monitoring to determine impact of curriculum and instruction

  • Design and implement remedial and individualized intervention for those who don’t respond

  • Inclusion of students in single accountability system

  • Documentation of student outcomes through AYP


It s not just about identification

It’s not just about identification…

  • IDEIA and NCLB are companion laws.

  • They are mutually referential.

  • Together, they envision a seamless system of supports, based on the use of scientifically based instruction, in both general and regular education.

  • The mission is the development of proficiency in basic skills (particularly reading) for all students.


What is response to intervention

What Is Response to Intervention?

  • A comprehensive, multi-tiered intervention strategy to enable early identification and intervention for students at academic or behavioral risk.

  • An alternative to the discrepancy model for the identification of students with learning disabilities.


Rti is the practice of

RTI is “the practice of…

  • (1) providing high-quality instruction and interventions matched to student needs and,

  • (2) using learning rate over time and level of performance to

  • (3) make important educational decisions. (p.5)”

National Association of State Directors of Special Education (2005)

Response to Intervention: Policy Considerations and Implementation, p. 5


Key characteristics of rti

Key Characteristics of RtI

  • High quality instruction in general education

  • Evidence-based instruction aligned to standards

  • Universal Screening of academics and behavior

  • Multiple tiers of increasingly intense interventions

  • Use of evidence-based interventions

  • Varied duration, frequency, and time of interventions

  • Continuous monitoring of student performance

  • Systematic assessment of intervention fidelity


Tier 1 benchmark phase

Tier 1: Benchmark Phase

  • Evidence-based core curriculum aligned with standards

  • Periodic benchmark assessments

  • Teachers analyzing students’ performance data


What is the core curriculum at the secondary level

What is the core curriculum at the secondary level?

  • Basic skills?

  • Content subjects?

  • Study/organizational skills?


Struggling readers in middle and high school

Struggling readers in middle and high school…

  • are usually less fluent readers

  • often have multi-syllabic needs

  • have much smaller sight word vocabularies

  • are less familiar with word meanings

  • have less conceptual and content knowledge

  • have fewer and less-developed comprehension strategies

  • typically don’t enjoy reading


Major areas of reading emphasis in middle and high schools

Major Areas of Reading Emphasis in Middle and High Schools

  • Expand sight vocabulary to unfamiliar words

  • Extend vocabulary development

  • Increase knowledge of text structures and genres

  • Acquire expanded content knowledge

  • Increase thinking and reasoning skills

  • Build positive connection with reading


Universal instructional design principles

Universal Instructional Design Principles

  • Direct instruction

  • Teacher modeling

  • Scaffolded instruction

  • Metacognitive instruction

  • Engagement approaches


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Content Literacy

The listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking skills and strategies required to learn in each of the academic disciplines.


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Content Literacy

is the door to content acquisition & higher order thinking.


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Building Blocks for

Content Literacy

HIGHER ORDER

SUBJECT MATTER

STRATEGIES

SKILLS

LANGUAGE


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HIGHER ORDER

SUBJECT MATTER

STRATEGIES

SKILLS

LANGUAGE

A Continuum of Literacy Instruction

(Content Literacy Continuum -- CLC)

Level 1:Enhance content instruction(mastery of critical content for all regardless of literacy levels)

Level 2:Embedded strategy instruction (routinely weave strategies within and across classes using large group instructional methods)

Level 3:Intensive strategy instruction (mastery of specific strategies using intensive-explicit instructional sequences)

Level 4:Intensive basic skill instruction (mastery of entry level literacy skills at the 4th grade level)

Level 5:Therapeutic intervention (mastery of language underpinnings of curriculum content and learning strategies)


Intense explicit instruction rti

LEVEL 3/4/5

Pretest

Describe

Commitment (student & teacher)

Goals

High expectations

Model

Practice and quality feedback

Controlled and advanced

Posttest & reflect

Generalize, transfer, apply

Intense-Explicit Instruction (RTI)

LEVEL 1

  • Cue

  • Do

  • Review

    LEVEL 2

  • “I do it!” (Learn by watching)

  • “We do it!” (Learn by sharing)

  • “Ya’ll do it!” (Learn by sharing)

  • “You do it! (Learn by practicing)


The clc says

The CLC says…

  • There are unique (but very important) roles for each member of a secondary staff relative to literacy instruction

    • While every content teacher is not a reading teacher, every teacher needs to teach students in how to read content.

    • Literacy coaches may be necessary but aren’t sufficient

  • Some students require more intensive, systematic, explicit instruction of content, strategies, and skills


Content literacy synergy

CONTENT CLASSES

Level 2. Embedded Strategy Instruction

CONTENT CLASSES

Level 1. Enhanced Content Instruction

Level 3. Intensive Strategy Instruction

• strategy classes

• strategic tutoring

Level 4. Intensive Basic Skill Instruction

Level 5. Therapeutic Intervention

Foundational language competencies

Content Literacy “Synergy”

Improved Literacy

KU-CRLCLC- Lenz, Ehren, &Deshler, 2005


Tier 1 universal screening

Tier 1: Universal Screening

  • Content pegged to local, state or national standards

  • Brief (minutes per student)

  • Administered 3-4 times per year

  • Capable of giving useful printouts for analysis of:

    • Individual student performance on skills

    • Performance of groups in relation to benchmarks


What domains should be screened at the secondary level

What domains should be screened at the secondary level?

  • Basic skills?

  • Study/organizational skills?

  • Other?


Data analysis teaming

Data Analysis Teaming

  • Teams of like teachers working together to…

  • Access critical data on all students’ performance related to achievement of standards

  • Analyze data and find which students have which gaps in attainments

  • Set measurable goals to close the gap

  • Brainstorm or create instructional strategies


Teaming during rti

Teaming During RTI


How can teaming be organized at the secondary level

How can teaming be organized at the secondary level?

  • Site-based literacy teams

  • Teachers working across subject areas

  • Teachers working within subject areas


Tier 2 strategic phase

Tier 2: Strategic Phase

  • Use of standard protocol interventions

  • Supplemental materials in general ed.

  • Differentiated instruction in general ed.

  • Short-term interventions (10-20 weeks)

  • Progress monitored twice per month (minimum)


A standard protocol intervention

A standard protocol intervention…

  • is scientifically based.

  • has a high probability of producing change for large numbers of students.

  • is designed to be used in a standard manner across students.

  • is usually delivered in small groups.

  • is often scripted or very structured.

  • can be orchestrated by a problem-solving team.


Strategic interventions at the secondary level

Strategic interventions at the secondary level

  • What are the targets for intervention?

  • What interventions are available?

  • How can progress be monitored?

  • How can support services be orchestrated within a typical secondary school schedule?

  • Or, should we change how secondary schools are organized?


Tier 3 targeted phase

Tier 3: Targeted Phase

  • Use of standard protocols

  • Supplemental instructional materials

  • Small intensive groups outside the general ed. classroom

  • Managed by remedial or special educators

  • Progress monitored twice per week

  • Interventions usually over extended periods


Special education like instruction mcmaster et al 2003

“Special-education-like Instruction”(McMaster et al., 2003)

  • Immediate corrective feedback

  • Mastery of content before moving to next lesson

  • More time on activities that were especially difficult

  • More opportunities to respond

  • Fewer transitions

  • Setting goals and self-monitoring progress

  • Special relationship with tutor


Strategic interventions at the targeted level

Strategic interventions at the targeted level

  • What are the targets for intervention?

  • What interventions are available?

  • How can progress be monitored?

  • How can support services be orchestrated?

  • What team formats are needed?

  • What is the interface with special education?


Determining eligibility for special education using rti at the secondary level

Determining eligibility for special education using RTI at the secondary level

  • What data will be available?

  • How can treatment fidelity be assessed?

  • What other assessment procedures are indicated?


Internet resources

Internet Resources

  • http://www.centeroninstruction.org/resources.cfm?category=reading&subcategory=materials&grade_start=6&grade_end=12#130

  • http://www.stupski.org/publications/index.

  • http://www.csos.jhu.edu/tdhs/rsch/Locating_Dropouts.pdf

  • http://www.silentepidemic.org/pdfs/balfanz.pdf

  • http://web.jhu.edu/CSOS/images/Balfanz_Keeping_Middle_Grade_Students_on_the_Path_to_High_School_Graduation.pdf


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  • http://www.betterhighschools.org/docs/NHSC_ApproachestoDropoutPrevention.pdf

  • http://www.act.org/path/policy/pdf/reading_report.pdf

  • http://www.all4ed.org/files/archive/publications/WritingNext/WritingNext.pdf

  • http://www.ncset.org/publications/essentialtools/dropout/dropout.pdfhttp://www.achieve.org/files/FINAL-dropouts_0.pdf

  • http://www.csrq.org/documents/WorksInProgressReport_Web.pdf

  • http://www.jhu.edu/~gazette/2006/06nov06/06drop.html>


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