Tropical fungi 3 30 10
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 39

TROPICAL FUNGI 3-30-10 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 35 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

TROPICAL FUNGI 3-30-10. The key to forest health. HOW DOES A FUNGUS GROW?. The living body of the fungus is a grayish, stringy mass called a mycelium (= the green plant of a rose bush). The fruiting body of the fungus is the mushroom (= the rose of a rose bush).

Download Presentation

TROPICAL FUNGI 3-30-10

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Tropical fungi 3 30 10

TROPICAL FUNGI 3-30-10

The key to forest health.


How does a fungus grow

HOW DOES A FUNGUS GROW?

  • The living body of the fungus is a grayish, stringy mass called a mycelium (= the green plant of a rose bush).

  • The fruiting body of the fungus is the mushroom (= the rose of a rose bush).

  • The mushroom produces spores that result in new fungi.


How does a fungus obtain nutrition

HOW DOES A FUNGUS OBTAIN NUTRITION?

  • Fungi can be saprophytic, meaning that they feed on non-living materials. Their mycelia use chemicals to dissolve and absorb nutrients.

  • Fungi can be parasitic, meaning that they feed on living materials.

    • On plants (smuts, rusts)

    • On animals (Histoplasma in human lungs)

  • Fungi can also be mutualistic, living with other organisms.

    • Lichens


Tropical fungi 3 30 10

The mycelia of many species of fungi unite with the roots of forest trees. These mutualistic symbiotic mycorrhizal associations provide the fungus with photosynthesized products and the trees with chemically obtained nutrients. The mycelia grow so fast that they capture most of the nutrients.


A nice image of the mycorrhizal association

A nice image of the mycorrhizal association.


The mycelium breaks down organic matter and absorbs phosphorus and potassium

The mycelium breaks down organic matter and absorbs phosphorus and potassium.


Several mycelia

Several mycelia.


Tropical fungi 3 30 10

Fairy Ring (so called because people believe that fairies come out and dance in the circle) – Since the mushrooms (fruiting bodies) use a lot of nutrients, they tend to pop up around the periphery of the growing mycelium. The mycelium is consuming nutrients where it exists.


Tropical fungi 3 30 10

Bracket Fungi, Belize. Remember, the brackets are the reproductive portion, and the body of the fungus is the mycelium that is in the dead limb.


Shelf fungi cockscomb

Shelf Fungi – Cockscomb.


Bracket fungus in trinidad

Bracket fungus in Trinidad.


Basidiomycete in belize 2006

Basidiomycete in Belize 2006


Interesting fungi growing among cahune palm seeds in caracol

Interesting fungi growing among cahune palm seeds in Caracol.


Puffballs are common when touched they send out a cloud of grayish spores

Puffballs are common. When touched, they send out a cloud of grayish spores.


Cute little gray mushroom growing on poo el cedral venezuela

Cute little gray mushroom growing on poo. El Cedral, Venezuela.


Tropical fungi 3 30 10

Magic mushrooms - aka ‘shrooms – (Psilocybe sp.) growing on cow poo at Crooked Tree, Belize. Beware the effects of psilocybin


Cute tambopata per

Cute! Tambopata, Perú.


Tambopata per

Tambopata, Perú.


Tropical fungi 3 30 10

There is a whole group of mushrooms called stinkhorns due to their putrid smell. They emit putrescine (a polyamine precursor of spermidine, first found in decaying meat but now known to occur in almost all tissues and in some bacterial cultures; a crystalline, slightly poisonous, colorless, foul-smelling ptomaine [a product of bacterial or protein metabolism] produced by the decarboxylation of ornithine, especially in decaying animal tissue) and cadaverine (a foul-smelling nitrogenous base, pentamethylenediamine, produced by decarboxylation of lysine). It is produced in decaying protein material by the action of bacteria, particularly species of Vibrio.WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW: Stinkhorns produce putrescine and cadaverine, and both have a horrible odor associated with decaying flesh. Yuk!


What is the selective advantage of emitting putrescine and cadaverine

What is the selective advantage of emitting putrescine and cadaverine?

To attract flies, which are the agent for the distribution of their spores.


Tropical fungi 3 30 10

Lacey Stinkhorn, Dictophora, Hato El Cedral, Apure, Venezuela. Its putrid smell attracts flies that spread the spores, as do all stinkhorns.


Tropical fungi 3 30 10

Bridal Veil Stinkhorn, Dictyophora indusiata, Cockscomb. The vail is technically called an indusium (outgrowth).


Stinkhorn belize

Stinkhorn, Belize.


Tropical fungi 3 30 10

Yet another stickhorn is Clathruscrispus. This one appeared overnight at Chaa Creek during a heavy rain storm in August, 2007. These mushrooms deteriorate quickly, lasting less than one day. Note the flies.


One weird student

One weird student!


Mushrooms cockscomb belize

Mushrooms, Cockscomb, Belize.


This fungus has dissolved all of the leaf but the ribs and edges found in cockscomb

This fungus has dissolved all of the leaf but the ribs and edges (found in Cockscomb).


Cordyceps one of the unique fungi of the tropics

Cordyceps – ONE OF THE UNIQUE FUNGI OF THE TROPICS.

  • Cordyceps is a tropical fungus that grows in the ground.

  • An invertebrate (tarantula, insect, etc.) brushes against the mushroom and spores stick to its exoskeleton.

  • Spores begin to grow, entering openings in the exoskeleton.

  • As the mycelium grows, the carrier can’t resist the urge to climb up vegetation.

  • At some point, the fungus kills the carrier, which turns white with fungal growth.


More on cordyceps

MORE ON Cordyceps . . .

  • The fungus produces spores.

  • The dead carrier ruptures.

  • The spores blow away in the breeze.

  • This whole system seems to have evolved to help the dispersal of the Cordyceps spores.

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Guk-x0BTDTM


Lichens are

LICHENS ARE . . .

  • Lichens are a mutualistic symbiotic association of a fungus and algae or cyanobacteria.

  • The fungus gets food from the photosynthesizing algal cells.

  • The algae get moisture and a place to live from the fungus.

  • Remember: “An alga took a likin’ to a fungus.”


Types of lichens

TYPES OF LICHENS

  • Foliose: leaf-like lichen (curly lobes and margins)


Types of lichens cont

Types of Lichens (cont.)

  • Crustose: crust-like lichen (adhere tightly to the surface; rather coarse to the touch)


Types of lichens cont1

Types of Lichens (cont.)

  • Fruticose: shrub-like lichen; In fact, they belong to the genus Usnea (the scientific name of Spanish moss is Tillandsia usneoides – the last word meaning “like Usnea”).


Gal pagos guide phillipi degel wearing an usnea beard

Galápagos guide, Phillipi Degel, wearing an Usnea beard.


Can you identify three types of lichens in this slide

Can you identify three types of lichens in this slide?


Christmas wreath lichen cryptothecia rubrocincta this occurs in the southern u s and in the tropics

Christmas Wreath Lichen, Cryptothecia rubrocincta. This occurs in the southern U.S. and in the tropics.


Tropical fungi 3 30 10

Fini


  • Login