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Defusion as a core ACT process: Conceptual definitions, current empirical l iterature, and future d irections for exploration. Stephanie L. Nassar , M.A. Kelly G. Wilson, Ph.D. K. Kate Kellum , Ph.D. Present Moment Awareness. Acceptance. Values. Six Core Processes.

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slide1

Defusion as a core ACT process: Conceptual definitions, current empirical literature, and future directions for exploration

Stephanie L. Nassar, M.A.

Kelly G. Wilson, Ph.D.

K. Kate Kellum, Ph.D.

slide2

Present Moment Awareness

Acceptance

Values

Six Core Processes

Psychological Flexibility

Committed Action

Defusion

Self-as-Context

slide3

Present Moment Awareness

Acceptance and Mindfulness Processes

Acceptance

Values

Six Core Processes

Psychological Flexibility

Committed Action

Defusion

Self-as-Context

slide4

Present Moment Awareness

Acceptance and Mindfulness Processes

Acceptance

Values

Six Core Processes

Psychological Flexibility

Committed Action

Defusion

Self-as-Context

slide7

I can’t deal with my panic

I am having the thought that …

behavioral tasks
Behavioral tasks

Word

repetition

Mindfulness

meditation

Metaphor

self report m easures
Self-report measures

Cognitive fusion

CFQ

Automatic

thoughts

ATQ-F&B

Believability of anxiety

BAFT

PIPS

Pain

slide18

Masuda et al, 2010: Cognitive defusion vs. thought distraction: A clinical rationale, training, and experiential exercise in altering psychological impacts of negative self-referential thoughts

slide19

Varra et al., 2008: A RCT examining the effect of ACT on clinician willingness to use EBP pharmacotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 449-458.

other studies
Other studies
  • Zettle, Rains, & Hayes (2011)
    • Reexamined a treatment study comparing ACT and CT intervention for depression and found that defusion mediated changes in depressive symptoms in the ACT condition
  • Gaudiano, Herbert, & Hayes (2010)
    • Reanalysis of treatment study comparing TAU and TAU+ACT for individuals with psychosis and found ACT group reported less distress post-treatment than TAU, which was mediated by defusion. ACT group more defused, and those defused tended to report lower levels of post-treatment distress. 
  • Hinton & Gaynor (2010)
    • Three sessions of cognitive defusion (CD) compared to a waitlist (WL) condition for university students reporting elevated distress, dysphoria, and low self-esteem. Large changes in distress, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, defused awareness of thoughts, psychological flexibility, and automatic thoughts favoring CD over WL. Maintained at 1-month follow-up.
studies cont d
Studies cont’d
  • Hesser et al. (2009)
    • Levels of acceptance and defusion behavior during ACT therapy sessions can later predict reduction in symptoms at 6 month follow up.
  • Healy et al. (2008)
    • Defusion works for coping with negative self-statements
  • Marcks & Woods (2005, 2007)
    • “Soldiers on parade” mindfulness exercise reduces subjective distress from an intrusive thought provoking task and willingness to engage in the task again
slide24

Limoo

Betrang

Betrang

salivation

salivation

sour

sour

bumpy

bumpy

yellow

yellow

lemonade

lemonade

citrus

citrus

Relational Frame Theory

Defining Properties of Relational Frames

1. Mutual

Entailment

3. Transformation

of Functions

2. Combinatorial

Entailment

Entailment is controlled by

the relational

context or “Crel” e.g., the phrase “is a” in “a betrang is a limoo”

Transformation is controlled by the functional context or “Cfunc” e.g., the word “taste” in “what does a betrang taste like?”

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