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Sickle Cell Anemia A Health Issue Affecting Young Children. Valerie Powell 05.27.2013 EEC 2732. What is Sickle Cell Anemia?. The most common form of sickle cell disease.

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sickle cell anemia a health issue affecting young children

Sickle Cell Anemia A Health Issue Affecting Young Children

Valerie Powell

05.27.2013

EEC 2732

what is sickle cell anemia
What is Sickle Cell Anemia?
  • The most common form of sickle cell disease.
  • The body forms abnormal red blood cells that are crescent-shaped; normal red blood cells look like doughnuts without holes in the center.
  • Because of their abnormal shape, the blood cells become stiff and sticky, blocking blood flow through the body.
what is sickle cell anemia1
What is Sickle Cell Anemia?
  • An inherited, lifelong disorder.
  • Present at birth.
  • There is currently no cure, only treatment to help improve anemia and lower complications.

Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2012

Photo Source: http://www.drstandley.com/images/health

%20topics/SickleCell.jpg

who is affected or at risk
Who is Affected or At Risk?
  • Most common in families who descend from Africa, South or Central America, Caribbean Islands, Turkey, Greece, Italy, India, and Saudi Arabia.
  • In the US, an estimated 70,000 – 100,000 people are affected, mainly African Americans.
  • Disease occurs in about 1 out of every 500 African American births.
  • Disease occurs in about 1 out of every 36,000 Hispanic births.

Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2012

signs symptoms
Signs & Symptoms
  • Signs and symptoms can vary from mild to severe and require hospital care.
  • May not show symptoms until 4 months old.
  • Most common symptoms are related to anemia and pain:
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness
  • Headaches
  • Pale skin
  • Coldness in hands & feet
  • Jaundice
  • Acute or Chronic pain
  • Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2012
signs symptoms sickle cell crisis
Signs & Symptoms: Sickle Cell Crisis
  • Crisis is a period of acute illness caused by the clumping of deformed blood cells.
  • Children are typically hospitalized.
  • Can be triggered by infection, injury, strenuous exercise, dehydration, exposure to temperature extremes, or unknown reasons.
  • Symptoms include: fever, swelling of hands or feet, severe abdominal and leg pain, vomiting, and ulcers on the arms and legs.
  • Source: Marotz, 2012
complications
Complications
  • Splenic Crisis
  • Infections
  • Acute Chest Syndrome
  • Pulmonary Hypertension
  • Stroke
  • Eye Problems
  • Gallstones
  • Multiple Organ Failure
  • Ulcers on the Legs
  • Priapism
  • Hand-Foot Syndrome
  • Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2012
management
Management
  • Ongoing Care:
    • Doctor visits
    • Routine blood work for lung, kidney and liver function
  • Infection Prevention:
    • Current on vaccinations
    • Good hygiene
  • Stroke Prevention:
    • Being aware of signs of stroke:
      • Sudden weakness, paralysis, confusion, trouble speaking and/or seeing, difficulty breathing, dizziness, loss of balance, unconscious, sudden or severe headache.
  • Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2012
teaching supports modifications
Teaching Supports & Modifications
  • Maintain regular contact with the family to review progress and treatment modifications.
  • Become familiar with symptoms of acute complications.
  • Have child’s emergency information readily available.
  • Provide family with learning materials and ideas to be used at home.
  • Enforce strict sanitary procedures in the classroom.
teaching supports modifications1
Teaching Supports & Modifications
  • Monitor physical activity and provide rest periods.
  • Encourage a healthy diet.
  • Encourage proper hydration, allowing unlimited access to water and bathroom breaks.
  • Alert family to symptoms witnessed in the classroom.
  • Work with family to help them and the child cope with the condition.
  • Source: Marotz, 2012
how to address common issues in the classroom
How to Address Common Issues in the Classroom
  • Issue:
    • Children may experience a high rate of absenteeism due to flare-ups, infections and illnesses (Marotz, 2012).
  • Response:
    • Give parents classwork so the child does not fall too far behind.
    • If hospitalized, work with hospital tutor on assignments and projects.
    • Encourage tutoring.
  • Issue:
    • Children can often, but not always, take part in physical education or sports (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2012).
  • Response:
    • Offer indoor activities for recess during times of extreme heat or cold, and when advised by their physician.
    • Require weather appropriate clothing.
works cited
Works Cited
  • Marotz, L.R. (2012). Health, safety, and nutrition for the young child (8th ed.) (pp. 104-105). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
  • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (September 2012). Retrieved May 26, 2013, from http://www.nhlbi.gov/health-topics/topics/sca/
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