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Session II “Searching for Neighbours in Multicultural Localities”. Research Strand 3 African Diasporic Networks in German-speaking countries Networks as ‘Safe Spaces’. Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dück University of Southampton.

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Session II

“Searching for Neighbours in Multicultural Localities”

Research Strand 3

African Diasporic Networks in German-speaking countries

Networks as ‘Safe Spaces’

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dück

University of Southampton

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K

Creating economic and social neighbourhoods across political borders, May 1-2, 2009


African migration to Europe- A Few Facts:

  • Migration trends from Africa are reflective of the socio-economic and political dynamics on the continent.

  • Conflict, political instability and poverty have prompted cross-border migration within and from Africa.

  • The majority of trans-national African migrants remain in neighbouring African states, with a tendency to migrate from other African countries towards West Africa.

  • The African continent consists of fifty-three nation states. From 1993 till 2002, twenty-seven of the fifty-three nations were involved in violent conflicts.

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


African migration to Europe- A Few Facts:

  • Beginning in the 1990s, Africa underwent an intense socio-political upheaval- democratisation process.

  • According to the Migration Policy Institute (2007), approximately between 7-8 million irregular African immigrants reside in the EU, and are mostly concentrated in Southern Europe, e.g. Spain and Italy.

  • World Bank figures indicate that in 1990 only 6 African democratic nations existed.

  • By the end of 1994 there were only 29 African democracies (Apendijnou 2002).

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


African migration to Germany- A Few Facts:

However, these political transitions were often accompanied by violent conflicts where many Africans were displaced or fled the continent. It is during this period that we see a modification in the characteristics of African migration to Germany. Not only students from urban areas seeking tertiary education, but also persons from rural areas fleeing war, torture and poverty.

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


African migration to German-speaking Countries

A Few Facts:

Since the 1980s a steady, but increased flow of Sub-Saharan African migrants to Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

Migration trajectories of the African diasporic population in these countries are quite diverse.

Stringent immigration legislation and the reinforcement of EU borders (solid/fluid) has made entry for Africans increasingly difficult.

According to the most recent figures from the German Federal Statistical Office: 272.376 African immigrants reside permanently in the Federal Republic of Germany (Statistisches Bundesamt 2006).

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


African migration to Germany- A Few Facts:

The African diasporic presence in countries such as Germany, Austria and Switzerland is not new. However, this connection still awaits entry into Europe’s collective memory and cultural archive ( Golden 2004).

The Black experience within the German-speaking world has been mostly one where Blackness signifies “otherness” and “non-belonging”

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


The are still many “hidden histories“ regarding the trajectory of Black Europeans.

It is estimated that approximately eighteen million Europeans are of African diasporic heritage.

However there are no reliable statistical data on the exact numbers of Black persons without a migrant background in Germany, Austria and Switzerland

Black European Studies website:http://www.best.uni-mainz.de/modules/Informationen/index.php?id=13

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


Myths concerning identity, nationalism and citizenship constitute the building blocks for Fortress Europe. Racialised ethnic minorities and migrant citizens in the ‘New Europe’ have become increasingly under fire from political parties advocating anti-immigration legislation and racist positions. In particular individuals socially constructed as Black regardless of their legal status, have continuously become the targets of hate crimes and racial profiling.

The Impact of physical and mental Borders

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


Unlike in the urban metropolis of many former European colonial powers, larger local Black neighbourhoods in German-speaking countries are virtually non-existent. Faced with marginalisation, exclusion, and the threat of racist attacks in these countries, African-descended individuals have sought spaces of ‘safety’ that provide both retreat and refuge from an environment often experienced as hostile, and an activity space for alliance building.

The Need for ‘Safe Spaces”

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


Theorisation of “safe space” colonial powers, larger local Black neighbourhoods in German-speaking countries are virtually non-existent. Faced with marginalisation, exclusion, and the threat of racist attacks in these countries, African-descended individuals have sought spaces of ‘safety’ that provide both retreat and refuge from an environment often experienced as hostile, and an activity space for alliance building.

Subaltern groups have always sought “free” or “safe spaces” for retreat and refuge, but what are they exactly?

Francesca Polletta summarises the concept of “free spaces”. However, I have chosen to utilise the term “safe spaces” in my research:

“ Free spaces” are small scale settings within a community or movement that are removed from the direct control of dominant groups, are voluntarily participated in, and generate the cultural challenge that precedes or accompanies political mobilisation”.

Francesca Polletta (1999:1)

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


African Diasporic Networks: Creating ‘Safe Spaces’ colonial powers, larger local Black neighbourhoods in German-speaking countries are virtually non-existent. Faced with marginalisation, exclusion, and the threat of racist attacks in these countries, African-descended individuals have sought spaces of ‘safety’ that provide both retreat and refuge from an environment often experienced as hostile, and an activity space for alliance building.

Individuals of African or African diasporic heritage have diverse trajectories. Some are directly linked to migration others are not, e.g. Black/Afro-Germans.

My ethnographic data indicates that these webs constitute spheres of safety, where this marginalized yet highly visible minority population can withdraw in order to strategise for mobilisation and find solutions for dealing with the multiple challenges encountered in the German-speaking world.

Linking African diasporic networks to the concept of “safe spaces”

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


African Diasporic Networks:Creating ‘Safe Spaces’ colonial powers, larger local Black neighbourhoods in German-speaking countries are virtually non-existent. Faced with marginalisation, exclusion, and the threat of racist attacks in these countries, African-descended individuals have sought spaces of ‘safety’ that provide both retreat and refuge from an environment often experienced as hostile, and an activity space for alliance building.

Moreover, these networks provide not only a space for activist activity and mobilisation, but they also create a space where persons of the African Diaspora can remove themselves from the dominant gaze and control of the societies in which they live, and simply just “be”.

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


African Diasporic Networks: Creating ‘Safe Spaces’ colonial powers, larger local Black neighbourhoods in German-speaking countries are virtually non-existent. Faced with marginalisation, exclusion, and the threat of racist attacks in these countries, African-descended individuals have sought spaces of ‘safety’ that provide both retreat and refuge from an environment often experienced as hostile, and an activity space for alliance building.

The terms Black neighbourhood and “safe spaces” are by no means synonymous for the safety and wellbeing of Black individuals. I use the term Black neighbourhoods in a descriptive manner to illustrate the fact that in German and Austrian cities or small towns, Black entrepreneurs, service providers (e.g. hair/skin care shops) places of worship along with Black residents concentrated in one specific area are non- existent.

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


African Diasporic Networks: Creating ‘Safe Spaces’ colonial powers, larger local Black neighbourhoods in German-speaking countries are virtually non-existent. Faced with marginalisation, exclusion, and the threat of racist attacks in these countries, African-descended individuals have sought spaces of ‘safety’ that provide both retreat and refuge from an environment often experienced as hostile, and an activity space for alliance building.

While many Blacks who self-identify as either German, Austrian and Swiss do not view themselves as immigrants, it is the common experience of racial positioning, racism(s), marginalisation and exclusion that prompt these groups to form strategic alliances with individuals of the African Diaspora with a migrant status. Thus, the research showed that the networks of African or Black individuals are not to be seen as disparate webs, separate from those of the Black German/Black Austrian community. Instead one could refer to or view these networks as inextricable webs of associational ties rooted in socio-cultural interests or political concerns.

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


Networks Researched colonial powers, larger local Black neighbourhoods in German-speaking countries are virtually non-existent. Faced with marginalisation, exclusion, and the threat of racist attacks in these countries, African-descended individuals have sought spaces of ‘safety’ that provide both retreat and refuge from an environment often experienced as hostile, and an activity space for alliance building.

  • AASAB – Bayreuth

  • Afro-Kid e.V.- Nuremberg

  • African Youth Foundation – Bonn

  • Black European Woman’s Council

    (AFRA)-Vienna

  • Forum e.V. - Bad Honnef/Berlin

  • Afrika Academy Sport - Munich

  • Afrika Herz e.V. - Berlin

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


Networks Researched colonial powers, larger local Black neighbourhoods in German-speaking countries are virtually non-existent. Faced with marginalisation, exclusion, and the threat of racist attacks in these countries, African-descended individuals have sought spaces of ‘safety’ that provide both retreat and refuge from an environment often experienced as hostile, and an activity space for alliance building.

AASAB (Verein der afrikanischen Studierenden und Afrika Interessierten in Bayreuth. Location Bayreuth: Established in 1994, AASA serves as a bridge between African students from various countries on the continent and white Germans interested in Africa, thus creating a space for dialogue and interaction.  For more detailed information see: http://www.aasab.uni-bayreuth.de

Afro-Kid e.V.- Nuremberg: Since March 2007, Afro-Kid e.V functions as a contact point and integration assistance  for African descended as well as white German parents of African descended children. The organization also advocates intercultural understanding and German-African friendship. See: http://www.afrokidev.de .

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


Networks Researched colonial powers, larger local Black neighbourhoods in German-speaking countries are virtually non-existent. Faced with marginalisation, exclusion, and the threat of racist attacks in these countries, African-descended individuals have sought spaces of ‘safety’ that provide both retreat and refuge from an environment often experienced as hostile, and an activity space for alliance building.

Academy Africa Sports  – Munich: The Academy Africa Sports is a soccer team founded in 2002 and is composed of pan-African (former and current) asylum seekers from countries such as Ghana, Nigeria, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Congo, Angola and Tanzania. See: http://www.academyafricasport.org

Black European Woman’s Council (AFRA)-Vienna: Created in 2007. The network deals specifically with the intersecting issues of gender, race and migration. Provides a platform for Black European women to lobby and prompt national institutions to include individuals of African descent in the elaboration and implementation of national plans to combat racism, discrimination and strive for equality in local, national and EU level politics. See: www.blackwomencenter.org

.

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


Networks Researched colonial powers, larger local Black neighbourhoods in German-speaking countries are virtually non-existent. Faced with marginalisation, exclusion, and the threat of racist attacks in these countries, African-descended individuals have sought spaces of ‘safety’ that provide both retreat and refuge from an environment often experienced as hostile, and an activity space for alliance building.

African Youth Foundation – Bonn:  A non-profit organization founded in 2000 in Bonn, Germany to aid African descended youth in the Diaspora, and to encourage German-African entrepreneurial projects. See: http://www.ayf.de

Forum e.V.- (Forum Moçambique) Bad Honnef/Berlin: Support network estab- lished in 2004 to assist in better integration of Mozambican migrants and supports business opportunities between Germany and Mozambique.

.

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


Networks Researched colonial powers, larger local Black neighbourhoods in German-speaking countries are virtually non-existent. Faced with marginalisation, exclusion, and the threat of racist attacks in these countries, African-descended individuals have sought spaces of ‘safety’ that provide both retreat and refuge from an environment often experienced as hostile, and an activity space for alliance building.

Afrika Herz e.V. – Berlin: Created in 1998, Afrika Herz became the first African organization (started by African women) to work on the issue of HIV prevention and awareness on behalf of African migrants. See: http://www.via-in-berlin.de

.

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


Berlin colonial powers, larger local Black neighbourhoods in German-speaking countries are virtually non-existent. Faced with marginalisation, exclusion, and the threat of racist attacks in these countries, African-descended individuals have sought spaces of ‘safety’ that provide both retreat and refuge from an environment often experienced as hostile, and an activity space for alliance building.

Extension of the Networks Researched

Frankfurt am Main

Bonn

Vienna

Dortmund

France

Bayreuth

Greece

Scotland

Bad Honnef

Nigeria

Sweden

USA

Duisburg

Munich

Mali

Benin

Erlangen

South Africa

Ivory Coast

Nuremberg

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


Ethnographic Point of Departure: colonial powers, larger local Black neighbourhoods in German-speaking countries are virtually non-existent. Faced with marginalisation, exclusion, and the threat of racist attacks in these countries, African-descended individuals have sought spaces of ‘safety’ that provide both retreat and refuge from an environment often experienced as hostile, and an activity space for alliance building.

From September 2007 till October 2008, I travelled throughout Germany and crossed the border into Austria in order to conduct participant-observation and a total of forty semi-structured and recorded ethnographic interviews along with numerous informal conversations with members of seven different networks. Twenty female and twenty male informants along with between five to eight follow up conversations equally distributed between the genders, constitute the core of my ethnographic data.

The following preliminary findings are based upon these in depth ethnographic interviews and subsequent follow-up formal and informal conversations. Here, I list a few of the issues and challenges that surfaced consistently in the empirical data:

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


Pertinent Issues and Challenges Facing African/Black Communities

  • 1. An increase in hate violence and random attacks (verbal and physical) since the fall of the Iron Curtain.

  • 2. Dissatisfaction with negative media depictions of Africa and Africans/Blacks.

  • 3. Experiences of racism (which is always gendered) and glass-ceiling phenomenon in the labour market (particularly for individuals with advanced degrees) and discrimination in the search for adequate and affordable the housing.

  • 4. Concern for the future of African/Black diasporic youth regarding education and equal access to employment opportunities.

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


Pertinent Issues and Challenges Facing African/Black Communities

  • 5. Lack of acknowledgement of the various migration trajectories and the diversity of Africa, its Diaspora and the richness of African/Black cultures.

  • 6. Lack of local and EU policies designed to deal with the collective fate and specific of African migrants .

  • 7. Feelings of rejections, marginalisation and being perceived as “not belonging” to the socio-political context of Germany/Europe. Africans/ Blacks are often rendered as invisible subjects across the European space.

  • 8. Lack of visibility and sufficient participation of African/Black diasporic individuals in local, national and EU level politics

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


The Issue of Gender Communities

While in the process of mapping out the nodes; making contact with key informants, the gender imbalance became evident. Black males dominated nearly all of the politically active African diasporic-led organisations/ networks. Thus, gender based political mobilisation took on a new dimension in the research.

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


Gender and African/Black Women in German-Speaking Countries Communities

  • The following issues were mentioned by the informants:

  • Identity, self-Empowerment and facing sexism within their own communities, e.g. how can African/Black women empower themselves when they often don’t feel recognised as full-fledged members of the society in which they reside.

  • Challenges faced by Black children and youth, e.g. limited upward mobility in education, which leads to greater employment possibilities.

  • Psychosocial issues caused by exposure to gendered forms of every day racism, e.g. Africans/Black subjects often find themselves in an absolute state of ‘Otherness” in relation to white subjects. Moreover, this group must often justify its presence in an “imagined” white space.

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


Gender and African/Black Women in German-Speaking Countries Communities

  • Qualification and access to the labour market, e.g. several of the highly qualified respondents could not find employment that corresponded to their levels of education. Precarious employment conditions

  • Political participation: local, national and EU political structures have very few females politicians, and women of colour comprise an additional layer of this under-represented group.

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


Mobilising Black Women in Europe Communities

  • The politicised mobilisation of Black women in Europe is not a new phenomenon. Black women began organising in several European countries during the late 1970s. Many of these organisations were cross-ethnic and transnational European coalitions:

  • Brixton Black Women’s Group ( 1970s) - U.K.

  • Organisation of Women of African and Asian Descent: OWAAD (1978) - U.K.

  • Zami : (1980s) - Netherlands

  • Sister Outsider (1980s) - Netherlands

  • Black German and Black Women in Germany ADEFRA (1986)

  • European Black Women’s Network (1991)

  • Tiye (1994) - Netherlands

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


Mobilising Black Women in Europe Communities

  • However, the majority of these groups were established in European countries with a colonial and post-colonial migration history from Africa.

  • The establishment of ADEFRA (Afro/Black-German and Black Women in Germany) gave the impetus for consciousness raising and politicised mobilisation among Blacks in Germany.

  • The establishment of the Black European’s Women’s Council points to a shift in the node of Black Women’s organisations in Europe.

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


Case Study: Communities

The Black European Women’s Council

Creating a Space for Empowerment

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K

Photos by Cassandra Ellerbe-Dück


Black European female activists (Béatrice Achaleke) from AFRA (International Centre for Black Women’s Perspectives), Vienna, Austria and Hellen Felter from Tiye International (NGO of 21 Black, Migrant and Refugee women in The Netherlands ) decided to seize the moment of the EU’s “European Year of Equal Opportunities for All” and host a conference to address the issues and concerns faced by Black women living in Europe.

The Black European Congress (27-29.9.08) brought together more than 100 Black women from 16 EU Member States and also included Switzerland.

The conference culminated in the drafting of the BEWC’s Vienna Declaration, and the creation of the Black European Women’s Council.

The BEWC was officially launched at the European Economic and Social Committee building in Brussels, Belgium on 9 September 2009.

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K

Photos by Cassandra Ellerbe-Dück


Creating a Space for Empowerment AFRA (International Centre for Black Women’s Perspectives), Vienna, Austria and Hellen Felter from Tiye International (NGO of 21 Black, Migrant and Refugee women in The Netherlands ) decided to seize the moment of the EU’s “European Year of Equal Opportunities for All” and host a conference to address the issues and concerns faced by Black women living in Europe.

“Space means a voice, which means power […] (C)reate, claim and keep safe

spaces for Black women and be your Sister’s keeper”.

Zeedah Meierhofer –Mangeli,

Director of the Resource Centre for Black Women, Zurich, Switzerland and BEWC member

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


“The BEWC has been defined as a vehicle for the recognition and the visibility of Black Women in Europe, through which they can reach their optimum potential.”

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K

Photos from the BEWC website


Launch of the Black European Women’s Council recognition and the visibility of Black Women in Europe, through which they can reach their optimum potential.”

9 September 2009 at the EESC in Brussels, Belgium

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K

Photos by Cassandra Ellerbe-Dück


General Assembly Meeting and election of Board recognition and the visibility of Black Women in Europe, through which they can reach their optimum potential.”

Member 9-10 April 2009 in Utrecht-Soesterberg,

The Netherlands

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K

Photos by Cassandra Ellerbe-Dück


General Assembly Meeting and election of Board recognition and the visibility of Black Women in Europe, through which they can reach their optimum potential.”

Member 9-10 April 2009 in Utrecht-Soesterberg,

The Netherlands

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K

Photos by Cassandra Ellerbe-Dück and from BEWC website


  • Aims and Objectives of the BEWC recognition and the visibility of Black Women in Europe, through which they can reach their optimum potential.”

  • To promote leadership among Black women in society

  • To influence national, European and international policies and to raise awareness on the intersection of race and gender issues among important sectors of opinion in Europe with the objective of empowering Black women - economically, socially, politically and culturally - nationally and worldwide

  • To combat all forms of discrimination and violence against Black women and their families and to ensure full access for all Black women to their human rights through their active involvement in society as well as policy development and implementation

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


  • Aims and Objectives of the BEWC recognition and the visibility of Black Women in Europe, through which they can reach their optimum potential.”

  • To facilitate the efforts of Black women, their non-governmental organisations and other bodies to advocate the rights of all individuals, and to fully utilise the International Human Rights instruments and the EU Charter for Fundamental Rights for achieving protection and advancement of Black women.

  • To facilitate the exchange of information between member organisations concerning European developments relating to the above-mentioned issues.

  • To promote democracy, international solidarity and co-operation.

  • To provide regular input on all areas of EU policy development and implementation that have an impact on Black women’s lives and on the promotion of cultural diversity.

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


  • How are these aims and objectives to be achieved? recognition and the visibility of Black Women in Europe, through which they can reach their optimum potential.”

  • A few strategies:

  • EU partnerships, e.g. after the BEWC is firmly established in Brussels, the council seeks to collaborate with other under-represented women’s groups networks/organisations.

  • Function as an umbrella organisation and strengthen Black European Women’s Organisations in countries such as: Ireland, Austria, Germany, Sweden, Estonia, Finland etc.

  • Website, media presence and building advocacy : see http://www.bewnet.eu/

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


  • How are these aims and objectives to be achieved? recognition and the visibility of Black Women in Europe, through which they can reach their optimum potential.”

  • A few strategies:

  • Develop programmes to access and lobby for funding on national and EU levels.

  • Promote political participation of Black women in European politics.

  • Utilise the Lisbon Strategy as a platform for socio-economic and political advancement of Black Europeans.

  • Build alliances beyond European borders e.g. Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (Helsinki Commission in Washington, D.C.).

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


Extension of the BEWC in recognition and the visibility of Black Women in Europe, through which they can reach their optimum potential.”

German-speaking countries

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


  • Conclusions: recognition and the visibility of Black Women in Europe, through which they can reach their optimum potential.”

  • Networks provide African diasporic groups with spaces of refuge and a sense of safety.

  • May function as replicas of their respective communities of origin, thus recreating a “back home” feeling.

  • The networks are not exclusively African. Instead in certain cases serve as spheres of encounter and interaction between whites and individuals from the African Diaspora, e.g. AASAB.

  • The networks are often formed along linguistic and ethnic lines, but are in many cases, due to necessity, are mostly Pan-African.

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


  • Conclusions: recognition and the visibility of Black Women in Europe, through which they can reach their optimum potential.”

  • Offer contact points and invaluable information for new arrivals, and assistance to long-time residents.

  • In the case of the (BEWC), this network serves not only as a self-defined “safe space” but is also seen as instrumental for the articulation of Black women’s needs, (intersections of gender and race) concerns for their communities, and political leverage across Europe.

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


  • Bibliography: recognition and the visibility of Black Women in Europe, through which they can reach their optimum potential.”

  • African Europeans, Wasafiri, The Magazine of Contemporary Writing: issue no 56 (Winter 2008).

  • Apendijnou, D. ( 2002): Spezifika der Lebenslagen, Erwartungen und Erfahrungen weiblicher afrikanischer Fluechtlinge in Deutschland. Universitaet Essen.

  • Back, L. & Nayak, A. ed. (1993): Invisible Europeans? Black people in the ‘New Europe’. Birmingham, All Faiths for One Race.

  • Brah, A. ( 1996) : Cartographies of Diaspora, Contesting Identities, London/New York, Routledge.

  • Byrd, R.P. et al. ed.(2009): I am Your Sister, Collected and Unpublished Writings of Audre Lorde. Oxford & New York, Oxford University Press.

  • Clifford, J. “Diasporas”, Cultural Anthropology Vol. 9(3) p.302-338.

  • (Summer 1994).

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


  • Bibliography: recognition and the visibility of Black Women in Europe, through which they can reach their optimum potential.”

  • Davis, A. (1981): Women, Race and Class, London, The Women’s Press Ltd.

  • Ellerbe-Dück, C. “Black Women and Europe 2008” in Voices of Black European Women 1. Black European Publishers, Vienna, Austria.

  • ---“Creating Networks and Claiming “Safe Spaces”: Black Women and Political Mobilisation in Germany and Austria (under Review by Feminist Studies 2009).

  • --- Forthcoming: “Networks The Networks and “Safe Spaces” of Black European Women in Germany and Austria in Borders Networks, Neighbourhoods. Negotiating Multicultural Europe (tentative title for SeFoNe book project, publishers- Palgrave-Macmillan U.K.).

  • El-Tayeb, F.(2004): “Blut, Nation und multikulturelle Gesellschaft in Afrikanerinnen in Deutschland und schwarze Deutsche Geschichte und Gegenwart. ed. Bechaus-Gerst & Klein-Arendt (Münster, Lit-Verlag.

  • ---- “If You Can’t Pronounce My Name, You Can Call Me Pride”: Afro-Germans, Activism, Gender and Hip Hop in Gender and History Vol.15 No.3 (2003): 462.

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


  • Bibliography: recognition and the visibility of Black Women in Europe, through which they can reach their optimum potential.”

  • Fahy Bryceson, D. et al. ed.(2007): Identity and Networks. Fashioning gender and Ethnicity Across Cultures. New York &Oxford, Berghahn Books .

  • Fröhlicher-Stines,, C. and Mennel, K.C.(2004) Schwarze Menschen in der Schweiz. Ein Leben zwischen Integration und Diskriminierung. Eidgenössischen Kommission gegen Rassismus Bern, EKR, p. 7-8.

  • Goldman, L.(2004): Becoming Black Europe, podium discussion (19 September 2004), Black Atlantic Conference in Berlin, Germany.

  • Johnston-Arthur, A. (2007) “ Es ist Zeit, der Geschichte selbst eine Gestalt zu geben…” Strategien der Entkolonisiering und Entmächtigung im Kontext der modernen afrikanischen Diaspora in Österreich in Re/visionen. Postkoloniale Perspektiven von people of Color auf Rassimus, Kulturpolitik und Widerstand in Deutschland, ed. Kien Nghi Ha, Nicola Lauré al Samarai Sheila Mysorekar, Münster, Unrast Verlag, p 425.

  • Kastoryano, R. (2002): Negotiating Identities: States and Immigrants in France andGermany. New Jersey, Princeton University Press.

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


  • Bibliography: recognition and the visibility of Black Women in Europe, through which they can reach their optimum potential.”

  • Lorde, A. (1998): Remarks on the Dream of Europe, reprinted in Who is a German: Historical and Modern Perspectives on Africans in Germany. Ed.Leroy, T. Hopkins Jr., Washington, D.C., American Institute for Contemporary German Studies, 1999.

  • Lopez, M.S.( 2008) ed.: [email protected], Culutres and Identities. New Castle, Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

  • Martín Alcoff, L. et al. ed. (2006): Identity Politics Reconsidered. New York, Palgrave-Macmillan.

  • Minorities of Europe. ( 1999): ‘Daring to Dream”…5 Years of Active Support Towards Minority Youth Participation”.

  • Moghadam, V.M (2000): "Transnational Feminist Networks: Collective Action in an Era of Globalization, " International Sociology, (15) p.57-85.

  • Oguntoye, K., Opitz, M. et al. (1986): Farbe Bekennen. Berlin, Orlanda Verlag.

  • Oguntoye, K.(1997): Eine Afro-Deutsche Geschichte. Berlin, Hoho Verlag.

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


  • Bibliography: recognition and the visibility of Black Women in Europe, through which they can reach their optimum potential.”

  • Polletta, F. (1999): “Free Spaces” in Collective Action. Theory and Society (28) p.1-38.

  • Räthzel, N.(2004): Creating Spaces of Fear and Spaces of Safety, Young natives and Migrants in Metropolitan Neighbourhoods. Journal of European Ethnology Vol. 34:2., p. 141-158.

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  • Unterweger, C.(2005) “ Wir greifen Raum: Die Bedeutung von Schwarzen selbstbestimmten Räumen im österreichischen Kontext.

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  • Wright, M.M (2004): Becoming Black, Creating Identity in the African Diaspora. Durham & London, Duke University Press.

Dr. Cassandra Ellerbe-Dueck University of Southampton, U.K


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