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American Wealth of the Gilded Age 1870’s -1890’s. The Biltmore Estate. Newport Summer Cottages. “The Breakers” A summer home built for Cornelius Vanderbilt II,

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American Wealth of the Gilded Age 1870’s -1890’s

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American wealth of the gilded age 1870 s 1890 s l.jpg

American Wealth of the Gilded Age 1870’s -1890’s

The Biltmore Estate


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Newport Summer Cottages

  • “The Breakers” A summer home built for Cornelius Vanderbilt II,

  • 2,500 craftsmen and artisans between 1893 and 1895. The Vanderbilt’s daughter, Gertrude, celebrated her coming out party in the house.


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  • Inside one of the Breakers 100 rooms


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  • William K. Vanderbilt, Marble House . 500,000 cubic feet of white marble


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Mrs. Hermann Oelrichs, wife of the American agent for the North German Lloyd steamship line.

Edward Julius Berwind, the largest single owner of coal properties in the country


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William R. Hearst San Simeon


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“The Pool”


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Philanthropy

  • Using ones wealth for the public good

Brooke Astor reigned over New York society with a disdain for pretension and devoted her considerable resources to New York's unfortunate


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  • Carnegie Centre 1905 and 2003


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Carnegie Hall New York


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Notes: Gilded Age Leads to ReformMark Twain Coined the Gilded Age

Mark Twain called the late nineteenth century the "Gilded Age." He meant that the period was glittering on the surface but corrupt underneath. In the popular view, the late nineteenth century was a period of greed and guile: of Robber Barons, speculators, shady business practices, scandal-plagued politics, and vulgar display of wealth.


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“The Pool”


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Child Labor


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Unregulated Wealth


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The Gilded Age

  • Pre Income Tax 16th Amendment

  • Pre Direct Election of Senators 17th Amendment

  • Men built industry and dominated them

  • Trusts and Monopolies

  • Great homes built based on highly skilled cheap immigrant labor.

  • Rise of the unions, No Health care, poor working conditions. Child Labor

  • Women have no right to vote Pre 19th Amendment


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Child Labor


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Upton Sinclair “The Jungle” and the Meat Packing Industry


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The Triangle Factory Fire 1911

The fire at the Triangle Waist Company in New York City, which claimed the lives of 146 young immigrant workers, is one of the worst disasters since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.

Lead to public awareness of working conditions and woman and child labor


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The Triangle Factory Fire 1911


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Labor & Union/strike breaking

1892: Steel plant in Homestead, Pennsylvania. Carnegie's involvement in the union-breaking action left many men dead or wounded and forever tarnished Carnegie's reputation as a benevolent employer and a champion of labor.

Other notable strikes Pullman Strike, Haymarket Affair and on going W.V. Coal Miners strikes


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Why Reform didn’t Happen During the Industrial and Gilded Ages

  • President Grant’s focus is in the west (corruption in his administration makes reform not a priority)

  • Compromise election of (1876) President Rutherford B. Hayes ends reconstruction by agreeing to move troops from the south and restore control back to local control.


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  • Plessey v. Ferguson (1892) Supreme Court Ruling:Plessey, a black man, wanted to sit in the same rail car with whites. He was not allowed. The case went to the Supreme Court. The ruling:

  • Separate was legal as long as separate was equal. “Separate but Equal” This stood until 1955


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Jim Crow Laws

Jim Crow was a Minstrel character and comic book. The name was very popular and gave a common name to the face to the segregation laws.


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More Reforms that did not take Place

  • President Garfield is shot trying to reform civil service patronage and corruption

  • Chester Arthur Garfield's vice pres. steps in and stops reform. (The Stawarts)

  • Cleveland and Harrison support big business

  • Corruption, Assassination, Compromise, Courts, The rich and powerful


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Reforms to come… leading to the Progressive Era

  • Tides turn on the ultra rich. Reform of workers, women's suffrage, taxes, education, anti trust and efficiency, morality, Protection for the common American


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Constitutional Amendments During the Progressive Era

Each Group takes an amendment.

Explain why and whent the Amendment was created.

Explain why it was considered a progressive reform.

What were the arguments against the Amendment.

Create an outline to present to the class.

  • 16th Amendment

  • 17th Amendment

  • 18th Amendment

  • 19th Amendment


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