Conference EastLink Klaipeda Science and Technology Park Klaipeda, 20-21 October 2010. Innovation biotechnologies for elaboration of antiviral preparations in Kazakhstan – the platform for cooperation. Institute of Microbiology and Virology Almaty, KAZAKHSTAN [email protected]
- in medicine and veterinary (vaccines, diagnostic test-systems,
antibiotics, antiviral preparations etc.)
- in food industry (yeast, lactobacteria, enzymes etc.)
- in alternative energy (biofuel),
- in environmental control (utilization of waste materials,
bioremediation of water and soil pollution etc.)
Among total infectious diseases dangerous for human and animals about 70% related with viral infections. Therefore investigation in virology is important part of general biotechnology research.
Virology research in Kazakhstan includes 3 main directions:
Area: Kazakhstan is a biggest country in Central Asia region. This is 9th country in the world in size. Total area - 2,724,900 sq km. Kazakhstan located in the heart of Eurasia and extended from west to east from Caspian Sea and Volga to China (about 3,000 km) and from South to North from Tien Shan mountains to Siberia (about 1,600 km).
Border: With Russia, China, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Iran (through Caspian Sea).
Natural water reservoirs in north, south-east and south-west Kazakhstan are very attractive for many species of waterfowl migratory birds
- in north Kazakhstan near the border with Russia (wild birds and poultry birds)
- in central Kazakhstan (poultry birds)
- in south-east Kazakhstan on the cost of Caspian Sea (wild migratory birds)
- in south-west Kazakhstan close to the border with China (wild migratory birds, poultry birds)
Immunoenzime test-systems for simplified identification of influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus were elaborated using local strains isolated in Kazakhstan. Experimental series of test-systems were produced.
PCR-kits for diagnostics of influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus on the base of local viral strains were prepared.
Inactivated vaccines against H5N1 (“avian”) influenza virus and H1N1 (“swine”) influenza virus on the base of local influenza virus strains isolated in Kazakhstan were elaborated and investigated in preclinical and clinical trials.
One of the most attractive vaccine formulations is immunostimulating complex (ISCOM) – special cage-like nanoparticle about 40-60nm in size containing viral antigens, lipids and immunostimulating compounds (saponins of plant origin).
ISCOM may induces broad spectrum of immune responses (humoral, cellular and mucosal) is due the combination of successful antigen presentation and the powerful immunomodulatory capability of plant compounds.
Agraval A. et al. J. Immune Based Therap.Vaccs. 1, 121-129, 2003.
Morein B., Abasugra, I. J. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 56, 367-382, 2004.
Toxicity of GG-6 and AH-6 saponins examined in chickens,
chicken embryos and mice:
1- saponin Quil A (Iscotec AB, Sweden); 2 – crude saponin GG-6;
3- purified saponin GG-6; 4 – crude saponin AH-6; 5 – purified saponin AH-6
HPLC fractionation of saponins
Saponins + lipids
in non-ionic detergent
Self-assembling of ISCOMs incorporatedHA+NA, saponinsand lipids
Electron microscopy of nanoparticles containingHA+NA of influenza virus H5N1 (А/Astana/RG/6.2/2009) andvarious saponins: GL-6 (1), АH-6 (2) and Quil A (3)
1 – whole virus inactivated H1N1 vaccine;
2 – subunit HA+NA vaccine;
3 – subunit HA+NA vaccine + alum hydroxide adjuvant;
4 – ISCOMs assembled HA+NA antigens and saponin Quil A;
5 – ISCOMs incorporated HA+NA antigens and saponin AH-6;
6 – ISCOMs containing HA+NA antigens and saponin GG-6
1 – titers of antibody in chicken sera
2 – protection against infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
Depression of infectious activity of avian influenza virus H7N1, strain A/FPV/Rostock/34 (in lg) after treatment of various preparations isolated from plants:
1 – AK01, 2 – AK11, 3 – AK17, 4 – AK27, 5 – MD6, 6 – SO12, 7 – GP12, 8 – KB8,
9 – virus without treatment
Plant preparations were isolated from:Sedum (S.aizoon, S.Alberti, S.Ewersii, S.hybridum, S.mugodsharicum, S.pentapetalum, S.purpureum, S.telephium, S.tetramerum, S.acre, S.kamtczaticum) and Pseudosedum (P.bucharicum, P.karatavicum, P.ferganense, P.Lievenii, P.longidentatum)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7Antiviral activity of plant preparations in comparison with commercial antiviral preparations Tamiflu and Amizon(% of inhibition)
A/tern/South Africa/1/62 (H5N3)
1 – AK27
2 – SO12
3 – KB8
4 – MD6
5 – GP12
6 – Tamiflu
7 – Amizon