Context of decision making
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Context of Decision Making. Module 2. Part 1: Determinants of ddu. Part 1: Session Objectives. Highlight the determinants of data use List potential barriers to data use Introduce the Action Plan to Address Barriers to Data Use tool. TECHNICAL. ORGANIZATIONAL. BEHAVIORAL.

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Context of decision making

Context of Decision Making

Module 2


Part 1 determinants of ddu

Part 1: Determinants of ddu


Part 1 session objectives

Part 1: Session Objectives

  • Highlight the determinants of data use

  • List potential barriers to data use

  • Introduce the Action Plan to Address Barriers to Data Use tool


What determines data demand use

TECHNICAL

ORGANIZATIONAL

BEHAVIORAL

What Determines Data Demand & Use?

* Based on PRISM analytical framework (LaFond, Fields et al. 2005 The PRISM: An Analytical Framework for

Understanding Performance of Health Information Systems in Developing Countries. MEASURE Evaluation).


Data are often underutilized because of

Data are often underutilized because of…

Technical constraints

  • Individual technical skills

  • Availability of computers

  • Data system design

  • Definition of indicators

  • Lack of data quality assurance protocols


Data are often underutilized because of1

Data are often underutilized because of…

Organizational constraints

  • Structural – roads, telecommunication

  • Organizational – clarity of roles, support, flow of information

  • Political interference


Data are often underutilized because of2

Data are often underutilized because of…

Individual constraints

  • Decision-maker attitudes,

  • Staff motivation,

  • Lack of “data culture”


What determines data demand use1

TECHNICAL

ORGANIZATIONAL

BEHAVIORAL

What Determines Data Demand & Use?

CULTURE

SOCIETY

POLITICS

* Based on PRISM analytical Fields et al. 2005 The PRISM: An Analytical Framework for

Understanding Performance of Health Information Systems in Developing Countries. MEASURE Evaluation).


Context of decision making

Group Participation

What barriers have you faced to using or getting others to use data and information?


Assessment of data use constraints tool

Assessment of Data Use Constraints Tool

  • Purpose

    • To improve understanding of the demand for data and the constraints to data use

  • Description

    • Key informant interview guide designed to identify constraints

    • Identifies effective practices in data use

    • Two versions – Facility-level assessment & national and subnational assessments


Assessment of data use constraints tool1

Assessment of Data Use Constraints Tool


Action plan for addressing barriers to data use

Action Planfor Addressing Barriers to Data Use


Small group activity 2 instructions

Small Group Activity 2: Instructions

Choose a note taker

Discuss barriers to data use experienced in your work. Here are some questions to start your discussion:

  • Have you ever had an experience while making a policy or program-related decision when you were concerned about the quality of the information being used?

  • Does your agency have the technical capacity to ensure access to and availability of reliable data?

  • What specific challenges have you experienced among your staff when it comes to using data?

  • How does your organization support having the necessary information to make decisions?

    Time for activity: 1 hour


Action plan for addressing barriers to data use1

Action Plan forAddressing Barriers to Data Use


Small group activity report back

Small Group Activity: Report Back

  • Share priority barriers

  • Discuss solutions crafted

  • Present action plan for two priority barriers

  • Time for report back: Each group has 10–15 minutes


Part 2 context of decision making

Part 2: Context of decision making


Part 2 session objectives

Part 2: Session Objectives

  • Explain the context of decision making

  • Define the concept of stakeholders

  • Explain the importance of involving stakeholders throughout the data use in decision making cycle

  • Introduce the Stakeholder Analysis and Engagement tools


Group participation

Group Participation

How can we ensure that information is being used to make diagnoses and inform decisions?


Context of decision making

Context of Decision Making

Data

Stake-holders

Decisions


Context of decision making

Context of Decision Making

Data

Stake-holders

Decisions


What is a stakeholder

What Is a Stakeholder?

Any person, group, or organization with a particular interest in a policy or program

  • Government agencies

  • Beneficiaries

  • Policymakers

  • Funding agencies

  • Providers / implementers

  • Civil society

  • Researchers

  • M&E specialists


Stakeholders

Stakeholders

  • Nongovernmental organizations

  • Professional associations

  • Religious leaders

  • Journalists/media

  • Private sector/business


Data producers vs data users

Data Producers vs. Data Users

Data producers think that decision makers:

  • Value “political” considerations over evidence

  • Are unprepared to measure or evaluate the consequences of their decisions

    Decision makers or data users think that health researchers and M&E specialists:

  • Lack responsiveness to priorities

  • Favor numbers / jargon to transparent communication

  • Prefer written reports to face-to-face conversation


Importance of knowing your stakeholders

Importance of Knowing Your Stakeholders

  • View activities from different perspectives

  • Have different degrees of understanding

  • Need/want different information

  • Need information at different levels of complexity

  • Have different intensities of interest

  • Have different roles in the decision-making process


Results of involving stakeholders in data use process

Results of Involving Stakeholders in Data Use Process

Relevance of data

Ownership of data

Appropriate dissemination of data

Use of data


Stakeholder analysis matrix engagement plan

Stakeholder Analysis Matrix & Engagement Plan

  • Clarify who has interest in a program and what that interest is

  • Identify who can help a program and how, and who can hurt it

  • Help you use this information for the success of the planning effort


Stakeholder analysis matrix

Stakeholder Analysis Matrix

The Stakeholder Analysis Matrix is a framework and process for:

  • Identifying stakeholders

  • Defining their roles and resources

  • Identifying dynamics among stakeholders

  • Setting the optimum stakeholder group


Stakeholder analysis matrix1

Stakeholder Analysis Matrix


Context of decision making

Stakeholder Analysis Matrix

Program issueDevelop plan (inc. M&E plan) to scale up PMTCT programs throughout system.

Proposed activityConvene stakeholders to identify priorities based on available data and develop action plan.

Date November 2006


How to involve stakeholders

How to Involve Stakeholders

  • Quarterly program management meetings

    • Quarterly meetings to interpret RHIS data

    • Involvement of facility staff to interpret program data

  • M&E system improvement

    • Indicator planning and/or harmonization

    • Data quality review meetings


Stakeholder engagement plan

Stakeholder Engagement Plan

Program issue

Proposed activity

Date


Context of decision making

Stakeholder Engagement Plan

Program issueDevelop plan (inc. M&E plan) to scale up PMTCT programs throughout system.

Proposed activityConvene stakeholders to identify priorities based on available data and develop action plan.

Date November 2006


Context of decision making

Context of Decision Making

Data

Stake-holders

Decisions


Decision areas

Decision Areas

  • Program design and evaluation

  • Program management and improvement

  • Strategic planning

  • Advocacy and policy development


Program design and evaluation

Program Design and Evaluation

  • Design

    • Select messages for prevention campaigns

  • Evaluation

    • Determine if new program approaches are needed to ensure that health impact objectives are met


Program management and improvement

Program Management and Improvement

  • Management

    • Determine if the program is meeting its process objectives

  • Improvement

    • Develop new strategies to increase coverage


Strategic planning

Strategic Planning

  • Identify geographic areas of highest need

  • Determine human resource allocation

  • Determine which of offered services is making the greatest impact


Advocacy and policy development

Advocacy and Policy Development

  • Identifying and quantifying underserved populations

  • Identifying focus areas for new policies


Context of decision making

Context of Decision Making

Data

Stake-holders

Decisions


Data and information

Data and Information

  • Census

  • Vital events data

  • Surveillance data

  • Household surveys

  • Facilities-level service statistics

  • Financial and management information

  • Modeling, estimates, and projections

  • Health research


Context of decision making

Factors Other than Data that Influence Decisions

Political Ideology

Arbitrariness

Data

Competing Priorities

Public Opinion

Decisions

Stake-holders

Power Relationships


Strengthening the decision making process

Strengthening the Decision-making Process

Stakeholders

Involve new counterparts

Decisions

Understand service delivery realities

Data

May require additional data


Small group activity 3 instructions

Small Group Activity 3: Instructions

  • Break into small groups.

  • Each group should select a decision that they make in their work settings and complete the Stakeholder Analysis Matrix around that decision.

  • A minimum of 7 stakeholders should be identified.

  • Complete the Matrix across the columns for 1–2 stakeholders.

  • Select one stakeholder and complete the Stakeholder Engagement Plan for that stakeholder.

  • Time for activity: 45 minutes


Group work report back

Group Work Report Back

  • Have note taker transfer your final Stakeholder Analysis Matrix onto flip chart paper

  • Share the decision your group chose

  • Share the priority stakeholders selected

  • Choose 1 stakeholder and share the entire row from the Matrix for that stakeholder

  • Share the Engagement Plan for the same stakeholder

  • Time for report back: 10–15 min per group


Context of decision making

THANK YOU!

MEASURE Evaluation is a MEASURE project funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development and implemented by the Carolina Population Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partnership with Futures Group International, ICF Macro, John Snow, Inc., Management Sciences for Health, and Tulane University. Views expressed in this presentation do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the U.S. Government. MEASURE Evaluation is the USAID Global Health Bureau's primary vehicle for supporting improvements in monitoring and evaluation in population, health and nutrition worldwide.

Visit us online at http://www.cpc.unc.edu/measure


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