The periodic table
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The Periodic Table. Chapter 6. Why is the Periodic Table important to me?. The periodic table is the most useful tool to a chemist. You get to use it on every test. It organizes lots of information about all the known elements. Pre-Periodic Table Chemistry …. …was a mess!!!

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The Periodic Table

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The periodic table

The Periodic Table

Chapter 6

Why is the periodic table important to me

Why is the Periodic Table important to me?

  • The periodic table is the most useful tool to a chemist.

  • You get to use it on every test.

  • It organizes lots of information about all the known elements.

Pre periodic table chemistry

Pre-Periodic Table Chemistry …

  • …was a mess!!!

  • No organization of elements.

  • Imagine going to a grocery store with no organization!!

  • Difficult to find information.

  • Chemistry didn’t make sense.

History of the periodic table

History of the Periodic Table

  • By the late-1800’s, many elements in the earth’s crust, oceans, and air had been discovered

  • As the number of known elements increased, scientists began to devise ways to classify the elements in useful ways

Dmitri mendeleev father of the periodic table

Dmitri Mendeleev “Father of the Periodic Table”

  • Mendeleev is considered the father of the Periodic Table

  • 1868 - Arranged the known elements in order of increasing atomic mass

  • Noticed that similar properties of elements appeared at regular intervals

  • Left spaces for undiscovered elements!

The periodic table

  • He used the word “periodic” to describe his table

  • Problems with that setup

  • Certain elements didn’t “fit”

  • He predicted that elements would be discovered – left room

Mendeleev s original table

Mendeleev’s Original Table

Henry mosley developed modern periodic table

Henry MosleyDeveloped Modern Periodic Table

  • 1911 – Rearranged table according to increasing atomic number; cleared up Mendeleev’s mistakes

  • Developed concept of atomic numbers after Rutherford discovered the proton

  • Remember, atomic number = # protons

Modern periodic table

Modern Periodic Table

  • Elements arranged according to increasing ATOMIC NUMBER

Periodic law

Periodic Law

  • When placed in order of increasing atomic number, elements have a predictable chemical and physical behavior

  • It is the electron configuration that determines an element’s behavior

  • The periodic table is arranged so that elements with similar properties fall in the same column

Periodic table terminology

Periodic Table Terminology

  • Group – elements in a column of the periodic table

    • There are 18 groups

    • Groups are sometimes called “families”

  • Period – elements in the same row of the periodic table

    • There are 7 periods

Families on the periodic table

Families on the Periodic Table

  • Columns are also grouped into families.

  • Families may be one column, or several columns put together.

  • Families have names rather than numbers. (Just like your family has a common last name.)

Periodic table

Periodic Table

Note: Two methods for numbering; we will use 1A, 2A, etc.

Representative elements

“Representative elements”

  • Groups 1,2, and 13-18

  • Also referred to as the “A” groups

Representative elements1

Representative elements

Metals nonmetals and metalloids

Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids

The heavy zigzag line

separates metals and


  • Metals are located to the left.

  • Nonmetals are located to the right.

  • Metalloidsare located along the heavy zigzag line between the metals and nonmetals.

Group b elements

Group “B” Elements

  • Transition elements

    • Groups 3 - 12

  • And

  • “Inner Transition elements”

    • Lanthanide and Actinide series

Metals nonmetals metalloids


  • shiny and ductile

  • good conductors of heat and electricity


  • dull, brittle, and poor conductors

  • good insulators


  • better conductors than nonmetals, but not as good as metals

  • used as semiconductors and insulators

Metals, Nonmetals, & Metalloids



  • Hydrogen belongs to a family of its own.

  • Hydrogen is a diatomic, reactive gas.

  • Hydrogen was involved in the explosion of the Hindenberg.

  • Hydrogen is promising as an alternative fuel source for automobiles

Alkali metals

Alkali Metals

  • 1st column on the periodic table (Group 1) not including hydrogen.

  • Very reactive metals, always combined with something else in nature (like in salt).

  • Soft enough to cut with a butter knife

The periodic table

  • Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs

  • Alkali metal reactivity

  • more good metal explosions

  • Francium

  • mythbuster sodium

  • mythbusters sodium part 2

Alkaline earth metals

Alkaline Earth Metals

  • Second column on the periodic table. (Group 2)

  • Reactive metals that are always combined with nonmetals in nature.

  • Several of these elements are important mineral nutrients (such as Mg and Ca

Transition metals

Transition Metals

  • Elements in groups 3-12

  • Less reactive harder metals

  • Includes metals used in jewelry and construction.

Boron family

Boron Family

  • Elements in group 13

  • Aluminum metal was once rare and expensive, not a “disposable metal.”

Carbon family

Carbon Family

  • Elements in group 14

  • Contains elements important to life and computers.

  • Carbon is the basis for an entire branch of chemistry.

  • Silicon and Germanium are important semiconductors.

Nitrogen family

Nitrogen Family

  • Elements in group 15

  • Nitrogen makes up over ¾ of the atmosphere.

  • Nitrogen and phosphorus are both important in living things.

  • Most of the world’s nitrogen is not available to living things.

  • The red stuff on the tip of matches is phosphorus.

Oxygen family

Oxygen Family

  • Elements in group 16

  • Oxygen is necessary for respiration.

  • Many things that stink, contain sulfur (rotten eggs, garlic, skunks,etc.)



  • Elements in group 17

  • Very reactive, volatile, diatomic, nonmetals

  • Always found combined with other element in nature .

  • Used as disinfectants and to strengthen teeth.

The noble gases

The Noble Gases

  • Elements in group 18

  • VERY unreactive, monatomic gases

  • Used in lighted “neon” signs

  • Used in blimps to fix the Hindenberg problem.

  • Have a full valence shell.

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