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The Periodic Table. Chapter 6. Why is the Periodic Table important to me?. The periodic table is the most useful tool to a chemist. You get to use it on every test. It organizes lots of information about all the known elements. Pre-Periodic Table Chemistry …. …was a mess!!!

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why is the periodic table important to me
Why is the Periodic Table important to me?
  • The periodic table is the most useful tool to a chemist.
  • You get to use it on every test.
  • It organizes lots of information about all the known elements.
pre periodic table chemistry
Pre-Periodic Table Chemistry …
  • …was a mess!!!
  • No organization of elements.
  • Imagine going to a grocery store with no organization!!
  • Difficult to find information.
  • Chemistry didn’t make sense.
history of the periodic table
History of the Periodic Table
  • By the late-1800’s, many elements in the earth’s crust, oceans, and air had been discovered
  • As the number of known elements increased, scientists began to devise ways to classify the elements in useful ways
dmitri mendeleev father of the periodic table
Dmitri Mendeleev “Father of the Periodic Table”
  • Mendeleev is considered the father of the Periodic Table
  • 1868 - Arranged the known elements in order of increasing atomic mass
  • Noticed that similar properties of elements appeared at regular intervals
  • Left spaces for undiscovered elements!
slide6

He used the word “periodic” to describe his table

  • Problems with that setup
  • Certain elements didn’t “fit”
  • He predicted that elements would be discovered – left room
henry mosley developed modern periodic table
Henry MosleyDeveloped Modern Periodic Table
  • 1911 – Rearranged table according to increasing atomic number; cleared up Mendeleev’s mistakes
  • Developed concept of atomic numbers after Rutherford discovered the proton
  • Remember, atomic number = # protons
modern periodic table
Modern Periodic Table
  • Elements arranged according to increasing ATOMIC NUMBER
periodic law
Periodic Law
  • When placed in order of increasing atomic number, elements have a predictable chemical and physical behavior
  • It is the electron configuration that determines an element’s behavior
  • The periodic table is arranged so that elements with similar properties fall in the same column
periodic table terminology
Periodic Table Terminology
  • Group – elements in a column of the periodic table
    • There are 18 groups
    • Groups are sometimes called “families”
  • Period – elements in the same row of the periodic table
    • There are 7 periods
families on the periodic table
Families on the Periodic Table
  • Columns are also grouped into families.
  • Families may be one column, or several columns put together.
  • Families have names rather than numbers. (Just like your family has a common last name.)
periodic table
Periodic Table

Note: Two methods for numbering; we will use 1A, 2A, etc.

representative elements
“Representative elements”
  • Groups 1,2, and 13-18
  • Also referred to as the “A” groups
metals nonmetals and metalloids
Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids

The heavy zigzag line

separates metals and

nonmetals.

  • Metals are located to the left.
  • Nonmetals are located to the right.
  • Metalloidsare located along the heavy zigzag line between the metals and nonmetals.
group b elements
Group “B” Elements
  • Transition elements
    • Groups 3 - 12
  • And
  • “Inner Transition elements”
    • Lanthanide and Actinide series
metals nonmetals metalloids

Metals

  • shiny and ductile
  • good conductors of heat and electricity

Nonmetals

  • dull, brittle, and poor conductors
  • good insulators

Metalloids

  • better conductors than nonmetals, but not as good as metals
  • used as semiconductors and insulators
Metals, Nonmetals, & Metalloids
hydrogen
Hydrogen
  • Hydrogen belongs to a family of its own.
  • Hydrogen is a diatomic, reactive gas.
  • Hydrogen was involved in the explosion of the Hindenberg.
  • Hydrogen is promising as an alternative fuel source for automobiles
alkali metals
Alkali Metals
  • 1st column on the periodic table (Group 1) not including hydrogen.
  • Very reactive metals, always combined with something else in nature (like in salt).
  • Soft enough to cut with a butter knife
slide21

Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs

  • Alkali metal reactivity
  • more good metal explosions
  • Francium
  • mythbuster sodium
  • mythbusters sodium part 2
alkaline earth metals
Alkaline Earth Metals
  • Second column on the periodic table. (Group 2)
  • Reactive metals that are always combined with nonmetals in nature.
  • Several of these elements are important mineral nutrients (such as Mg and Ca
transition metals
Transition Metals
  • Elements in groups 3-12
  • Less reactive harder metals
  • Includes metals used in jewelry and construction.
boron family
Boron Family
  • Elements in group 13
  • Aluminum metal was once rare and expensive, not a “disposable metal.”
carbon family
Carbon Family
  • Elements in group 14
  • Contains elements important to life and computers.
  • Carbon is the basis for an entire branch of chemistry.
  • Silicon and Germanium are important semiconductors.
nitrogen family
Nitrogen Family
  • Elements in group 15
  • Nitrogen makes up over ¾ of the atmosphere.
  • Nitrogen and phosphorus are both important in living things.
  • Most of the world’s nitrogen is not available to living things.
  • The red stuff on the tip of matches is phosphorus.
oxygen family
Oxygen Family
  • Elements in group 16
  • Oxygen is necessary for respiration.
  • Many things that stink, contain sulfur (rotten eggs, garlic, skunks,etc.)
halogens
Halogens
  • Elements in group 17
  • Very reactive, volatile, diatomic, nonmetals
  • Always found combined with other element in nature .
  • Used as disinfectants and to strengthen teeth.
the noble gases
The Noble Gases
  • Elements in group 18
  • VERY unreactive, monatomic gases
  • Used in lighted “neon” signs
  • Used in blimps to fix the Hindenberg problem.
  • Have a full valence shell.
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