Aristotle s hylo morphism
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Aristotle's "Hylo-Morphism". I. A Metaphysics of "Two-in-One". Substance (Hyle) & Form (Morph) are united 1. Matter, or substance, is passive -- and is "shaped" by Form 2. Form is active and is the actual determinant of a thing - it defines the nature of a thing

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Aristotle's "Hylo-Morphism"

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Aristotle s hylo morphism

Aristotle's "Hylo-Morphism"


I a metaphysics of two in one

I. A Metaphysics of "Two-in-One"

  • Substance (Hyle) & Form (Morph) are united

  • 1. Matter, or substance, is passive

    -- and is "shaped" by Form

  • 2. Form is active and is the actual determinant of a thing

    - it defines the nature of a thing

    - it determines its FUNCTION


Ex the ikea chair

EX. -- the IKEA chair

If you purchase a chair from the world-famous IKEA store, prior to taking it home to assemble, is it actually a chair?

It is really only a potential chair, isn’t it?

(considering how everything from that store is pre-packaged for assembly)

It is only an real chair after it is actualized in the process of assembling it according to its design!


An epistemology of change

An Epistemology of Change

To know a thing one needs to know

  • not only WHAT it is

    (its Form & Matter)

  • but also its goal and HOW it gets there

    (it’s ‘Telos’)


Thus any thing can have four causes

Thus any thing can have Four Causes

  • Final

  • Efficient Cause

  • Material Cause

  • Formal Cause


Example of the oak tree

Example of the Oak Tree

  • Formal Cause:

    • the pattern ingrained in Nature for the acorn to grow into an oak (and not a pine or an apple tree!)

      • this pattern actualizes (and limits) the substance


Example of the acorn oak tree

Material Cause: the "acorn stuff" (!)

the physical components of the initial seed

Example of the Acorn/Oak tree


Example of the acorn oak tree1

Efficient Cause:

what we usually call Cause & Effect

the progressive environmental and nutritive factors that promote daily-change in the object

from acorn, to seedling, to sapling, etc.

Example of the Acorn/Oak tree


Example of the acorn oak tree2

Example of the Acorn/Oak tree

  • Final Cause:

    the "telos" or goal of a thing

    the mature 40-ft. Oak tree


Aristotle s hylo morphism

Only physical maturation?

Only reproductive actuality?

What about the other functions of the mature tree?

What about the ecological chain?


Aristotle s hylo morphism

The ultimate “ends” of the object or intricately inter-related to the “ends” of others, and that’s all part of ‘the grand design…

thus "Final" and "Formal" are connected, for and individual object, and for reality as a whole!


Does everything have this structure

Does EVERYTHING have this structure?

Yes!

Trees, (organic things)

Statues, (inorganic things)

Corporations & Colleges… (complex things!)

How about….

- The UNIVERSE...?


Does everything have this structure1

Does EVERYTHING have this structure?

  • Yes: Like Trees, Statues, Corporations & Colleges, according to Aristotle the UNIVERSE as a whole is certainly no exception


Does everything have this structure2

Does EVERYTHING have this structure?

  • Yes: Like Trees, Statues, Corporations & Colleges, according to Aristotle the UNIVERSE as a whole is certainly no exception

    • The “Prime Mover”

This is the name Aristotle gave for the Formal Cause of everything


Does everything have this structure3

Does EVERYTHING have this structure?

  • Yes: Like Trees, Statues, Corporations & Colleges, according to Aristotle the UNIVERSE as a whole is certainly no exception

    • The “Prime Mover”

    • Prime Matter

This is the name Aristotle gave for the Material Cause of everything


Does everything have this structure4

Does EVERYTHING have this structure?

  • Yes: Like Trees, Statues, Corporations & Colleges, according to Aristotle the UNIVERSE as a whole is certainly no exception

    • The “Prime Mover”

    • Prime Matter

    • Evolution

This is OUR name for what Aristotle would refer to as Efficient Causality


Does everything have this structure5

Does EVERYTHING have this structure?

  • Yes: Like Trees, Statues, Corporations & Colleges, according to Aristotle the UNIVERSE as a whole is certainly no exception

    • The “Prime Mover”

    • Prime Matter

    • Evolution

    • “The End”

Aristotle presumed that as with everything else, reality has an ultimate goal --


According to aquinas

According to Aquinas...

  • Aquinas was one of the first to translate the lost works of Aristotle…

  • This provided Aquinas a rational explanation for what he already believed by Faith.

  • Faith and Reason coincide, not conflict!


According to aquinas the hidden structure of things is now revealed

Prime Mover=

Prime Matter=

Evolution=

“The End” =

The Eternal Law

The Natural Law

The Human (Civil) Law

The Divine Law

According to Aquinas... The “hidden structure” of things is now revealed


According to aquinas the hidden structure of things is now revealed1

The Eternal Law

The Natural Law

The Human (Civil) Law

The Divine Law

According to Aquinas... The “hidden structure” of things is now revealed

This is God’s Unalterable Rule over the Universe


According to aquinas the hidden structure of things is now revealed2

The Eternal Law

The Natural Law

The Human (Civil) Law

The Divine Law

According to Aquinas... The “hidden structure” of things is now revealed

This is the design of what is Good imprinted in Material itself


According to aquinas the hidden structure of things is now revealed3

The Eternal Law

The Natural Law

The Human (Civil) Law

The Divine Law

According to Aquinas... The “hidden structure” of things is now revealed

If Civil Law is based on what is Natural, it is then Just law

(Re: Martin luther King)


According to aquinas the hidden structure of things is now revealed4

The Eternal Law

The Natural Law

The Human (Civil) Law

The Divine Law

According to Aquinas... The “hidden structure” of things is now revealed

If Civil Law is Just then we will be acting according to God’s Ultimate End


So the order is divinely ordained

So, the order is divinely ordained:

  • Yet, as long as even an atheist accepts the “natural order of things” then

  • Natural Law Ethics should be employed to create Human Laws


The good intrinsic to nature includes

The “Good” intrinsic to Nature includes...

  • Life

    • and Procreation

      • Knowledge

        • and Sociability


Principles derived from these include

Principles derived from these include...

  • Non-Maleficence

    • (above all “do no harm”)

  • Beneficence

  • Totality of the Body

  • Double Effect


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