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DRUG TRENDS THE FIGHT AGAINST DRUG TRAFFICKING. I STANBUL July 08 , 2008. DRUG PROBLEMS. Globalization High profit margin Increase in drug addiction Terrorist activities Changes in the political situation in various countries.

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DRUG TRENDS THE FIGHT AGAINST DRUG TRAFFICKING

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Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

DRUG TRENDS

THE FIGHT AGAINST DRUG TRAFFICKING

ISTANBUL

July 08, 2008


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

DRUG PROBLEMS

  • Globalization

  • High profit margin

  • Increase in drug addiction

  • Terrorist activities

  • Changes in the political situation in various countries

  • The drug problem has grown into a regional and international crime problem, not just a national problem.


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

GLOBAL EVALUATION

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime(UNODC)

World Drug Report

1/3 of $1 Trillion US Dollars is derived from illegal income which is approximately $321 Billion US.

The source is from drug trafficking.


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

AFGHANISTAN

MYANMAR

LAO PDR

MEXICO

COLOMBIA

OPIATES


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

COMPARING OPIUM PRODUCTION BETWEEN AFGHANISTAN AND REST OF THE WORLD

Source: UNODC


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

OPIUM POPPY CULTIVATION IN AFGHANISTAN

(1986 – 2007)

+ 17%

193,000

- 20.7%

165,000

131,000

104,000

Source: UNODC


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

POTENTIAL OPIUM PRODUCTION IN AFGHANISTAN

(1986 – 2007)

+34.4%

8,200

- 2.4%

6,100

4,200

4,100

Source: UNODC


Opium poppy cultivation in south east asia

140,000

120,000

100,000

80,000

Hectares

60,000

40,000

20,000

0

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Lao PDR

Myanmar

OPIUM POPPY CULTIVATION IN SOUTH EAST ASIA

127,752

81% decrease

2000-2006

+ 22%

29,200

24,000

Source: UNODC, Myanmar figures for 2000 & 2001 are US Government estimates


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

OPIUM POPPY CULTIVATION IN COLOMBIA & MEXICO

8,900

- 41%

5,250

Source: UNODC: 2000-2006 Colombia, 2000-2005 Mexico; US Government Mexico 2006


Potential opium production in south east asia

POTENTIAL OPIUM PRODUCTION IN SOUTH EAST ASIA

73% decrease

2000-2006

1,254

+ 40%

469

335

Source: UNODC, Myanmar figures for 2000 & 2001 are US Government estimates


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

POTENTIAL OPIUM PRODUCTION IN COLOMBIA & MEXICO

177

- 44%

99

Source: UNODC: 2000-2006 Colombia, 2000-2005 Mexico; US Government Mexico 2006


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

GLOBAL PRODUCTION AND SEIZURES OF HEROIN

11.5%

33.8%

10.9%

11.1%

12.1%

12.2%

Source: UNODC


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

COCA AND COCAINE


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

GLOBAL CULTIVATION OF COCA

(1990 – 2006)

Coca Cultivation

Andean region

2002

170,300 ha

2003

153,800 ha

2004

158,000 ha

2005

159,600 ha

2006

156,900 ha

Source: UNODC


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

ESTIMATED GLOBAL COCAINE PRODUCTION

(1990 – 2006)

Production Statistics

Source: UNODC


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

COCAINE TRAFFICKING ROUTES

Seizures of cocaine

transiting direct to Spain and Portugal

have decreased

Seizures on the “back door”

of Europe have increased

76.7%

58.1%

57.4%

38.9%

45.1%

46.5%

Cocaine shipments

through West Africa

pose a significant threat

Reports of large

quantities of cocaine

to Asia increasing

The amount of cocaine leaving

Venezuela to the US and Europe

has increased dramatically


Cocaine seizures

COCAINE SEIZURES

On October 30, 2007, a record 23.5 tons of cocaine was seized in Mexico.

Low Profile Vessels:

3 multi-ton cocaine seizures from November 2006 to March 2008

Photo courtesy of the US Coast Guard


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

CANNABIS AND DERIVATIVES

Percentage of Global Production

Africa

North America

Oceania

Central/ and Caribbean

Asia

Europe

Source UNODC (Statistics of 42,000 hectares under cultivation in 2005)


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

GLOBAL SEIZURES OF MARIJUANA (TONS)

- 35%

Source: UNODC


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

GLOBAL SEIZURES OF HASHISH (TONS)

- 11%

Source: UNODC


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

RECORD HASHISH SEIZURE

In June 2008, a joint operation led to the seizure and destruction of approximately 262 tons of hashish. The hashish was stockpiled in several underground warehouses near Spin Boldak, Afghanistan.


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

AMPHETAMINE-TYPE SIMULANTS


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF AMPHETAMINE-TYPE STIMULANTS (ATS)

480

479

445

Source: UNODC


Mdma production

The Netherlands remains a significant producer of MDMA

“Mega-Labs” in South East Asia are capable of producing both MDMA and crystal methamphetamine.

Asian Organized Crime groups play an important role in the global MDMA trade.

Canada is now the primary source country for MDMA in the United States.

MDMA PRODUCTION


Methamphetamine trafficking in mexico

In 2007, decreased availability in the United States.

Starting in 2008, no pseudo-ephedrine can be legally imported into Mexico.

Precursor Chemicals now flowing through Central America.

MEXICO

METHAMPHETAMINE TRAFFICKING IN MEXICO

Lab seized in Mexico in December 2007


Methamphetamine in south east asia

Synthetic drugs are the primary threat in South East Asia.

Increasing rates of abuse and production throughout South East Asia.

Yunnan

Province

Burma

Vietnam

Laos

Thailand

Cambodia

METHAMPHETAMINE IN SOUTH EAST ASIA


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

GLOBAL SEIZURES OF AMPHETAMINE-TYPE STIMULANTS (ATS)

44

35.4

31.7

29.6

26.6

24.7

Source: UNODC


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

ORIGIN OF SEIZURES OF ECSTASY (2003 – 2005)

The Netherlands

Belgium

Germany

Canada

Poland

Lithuania

Estonia

England

Bulgaria

China

Serbia

South America

Spain

USA

Hungary

Bosnia & Herzegovina

Other European Countries

Other Asian Countries

Other

(Source: UNODC )


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

ORIGIN OF GLOBAL SEIZURES OF AMPHETAMINES (2003 – 2005)

The Netherlands

Poland

Belgium

Lithuania

Estonia

Serbia

Germany

Bulgaria

Czech Republic

Bosnia & Herzegovina

Slovakia

Other European Countries

Asian Countries

American Countries

Oceana

(Source: UNODC)


Precursor chemicals

Trafficking groups quickly adapt in response to tighter legal controls.

Countries in Asia, Africa and Middle East used for transit.

How will new restrictions impact drug trafficking groups?

PRECURSOR CHEMICALS


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

ACETIC ANHYDRIDE (AA)

  • No licit production or legal use in Afghanistan

  • Produced in at least 18 countries around the world

    • China, Russia, India, Germany, and South Korea

  • Smuggled to Afghanistan through neighboring countries

    • Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, China, Pakistan, and Iran

  • Smuggled via maritime vessels in containerized cargo and overland in cargo trucks


Acetic anhydride aa

Price of AA in Afghanistan has reportedly increased over the past year.

Notable seizures:

In November 2007 10 tons of AA in Russia.

In March 2007 14 tons of AA traveling to Pakistan from South Korea.

ACETIC ANHYDRIDE (AA)


Money laundering

*Trade-based money laundering linking organizations in South America, the Middle East and Asia.

*Exploiting technology and developing new methods.

Online and Mobile telephone payment system

Virtual worlds

MONEY LAUNDERING

*Bulk cash smuggling continues unabated.


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

POLICE UNITS – ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

MINISTRY OF INTERIOR

UNDERSECRETARY OF CUSTOMS

COMMANDERSHIP OF COAST GUARD

GENERAL

COMMANDERSHIP

OF GENDARMERIE

TURKISH NATIONAL POLICE

TURKISH CUSTOMS

In the fight against drug trafficking the Gendarmerie, Police, Coast Guard and Customs work cooperatively on joint investigations.


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

TURKEY’S VIEW ON

DRUG TRAFFICKING

  • Turkey has fought against drug trafficking, drugs abuse and addiction

  • Turkey has instituted policies which state that drug trafficking is a crime against humanity and drug addicted individuals should be treated as patients

  • The “National Strategy and Policy Document,” which covers the years of 2006-2012, has been signed by the Prime Minister.

  • With the signing of this document, political measures on the struggle against drug trafficking has been clearly defined.


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

RESULTS IN THE STRUGGLE AGAINST DRUGS


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

K.K.T.C.

  • NORTHERN BLACK SEA ROUTE

  • BALKAN ROUTE

  • EAST MEDITERRANEAN ROUTE


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

HEROIN SEIZURES IN EU AND TURKEY

15,000

Turkey – Transit country

EU – Target Countries

12,000

10,810

10,274

9,206

8,963

8,975

10,312

9,000

8,069

7,462

,8844

Kilograms

8,195

6,005

6,067

6,000

6,914

6,052

4,704

3,820

3,000

3,605

4,651

3,509

2,535

0

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

In 2006, Turkey seized more heroin than all the EU countries combined.

(Source: UNODC )


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

1 Operation

121 kg heroin

10 persons arrested

5 Operations

578 kg heroin 19 persons arrested

1 Operation 140 kg heroin 5 persons arrested

1 Operation

142 kg heroin

10 persons arrested

EMERGING THREAT: NORTHERN BLACKSEA ROUTE

K.K.T.C.

Cooperation and operational information sharing resulted in large seizures in the Ukraine (506 kg), Azerbaijan (142 kg), Kazakhstan (121 kg) and Romania (150 kg)

39/109


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

SYNTHETIC DRUG ROUTES

ECSTASY

CAPTAGON

K.K.T.C.

15,665,321

10,963,979

8,656,886

8,443,719

5,848,457


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

REGIONAL ECSTASY EVALUATION

Although Turkey is not among the main producing or consuming countries, it is among one of the top three ecstasy seizing countries in Europe.


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

TADOC

TURKISH INTERNATIONALACADEMY AGAINST

DRUGS AND

ORGANIZED

CRIME

TADOC was established.


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

OPERATIONS CONDUCTED OVER THE LAST 3 YEARS INVOLVING INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

CONTROLLED DELIVERY OPERATIONS

( 1997 – 2007 )


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

OUR PROPOSALS


Drug trends the fight against drug trafficking

THANK YOU


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