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(Isfahan University of Technology). Animal nutrition on the rangeland (Part 2). Prepared by: Dr A. Riasi [email protected] http://riasi.iut.ac.ir. Digestive system of ruminants. Proper care of the land and its grazing animals requires a sound understanding of ruminant nutrition.

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(Isfahan University of Technology)

Animal nutrition on the rangeland

(Part 2)

Prepared by: Dr A. Riasi

[email protected]

http://riasi.iut.ac.ir


Digestive system of ruminants

  • Proper care of the land and its grazing animals requires a sound understanding of ruminant nutrition.

  • Ruminant comes from the word “rumen”.


Ruminant digestive physiology

Small intestine

Rectum

Cecum

Rumen

Esophagus

Reticulum

Omasum

Colon

Abomasum


Digestive system of non-ruminants

Rectum

Colon

Stomach

Esophagus

Small intestine

Cecum


Digestive system of non-ruminants

Rectum

Small intestine

Esophagus

Stomach

Cecum

Colon




Advantage of pregastric fermentation

  • Make better use of alternative nutrients

    • Cellulose

    • NPN

  • Ability to detoxify some poisonous compounds

    • Oxalates, cyanide, alkaloids


Advantage of pregastric fermentation

  • More effective use of fermentation end products

    • Volatile fatty acids

    • Microbial protein

    • B vitamins

  • Decrease in handling undigested residues

  • In wild animals, it allows animals to eat and run


Disadvantage of pregastric fermentation

  • Fermentation is inefficient

    • Energy

      • Loss Amount (% of total caloric value)

      • Methane 5-8

      • Heat of fermentation 5-6


Disadvantage of pregastric fermentation

  • Fermentation is inefficient

    • Protein

      • Some ammonia resulting from microbial degradation will be absorbed and excreted

      • 20% of the nitrogen in microbes is in the form of nucleic acids


Disadvantage of pregastric fermentation

  • Ruminants are susceptible to toxins produced by rumen microbes

    • Nitrates Nitrites

    • Urea Ammonia

    • Nonstructural carbohydrates Lactic acid

    • Tryptophan Methyl indole

    • Isoflavonoid estrogens Estrogen


Ruminant digestive process

  • Nutrients absorbed from the digestive tract include volatile fatty acids, amino acids, fatty acids, glucose, minerals, and vitamins.

  • These are used in the synthesis of the many different compounds found in meat, milk and wool, and to replace nutrients used for maintaining life processes including reproduction.


Ruminant digestive process

  • Digestion begins when an animal takes a bite from the pasture.

  • As the animal chews the feed is formed into a bolus (a packet of food capable of being swallowed).

  • Saliva is excreted, which further aids in swallowing and serves as a pH buffer in the stomach.


Ruminant digestive process

  • Ammonia can be absorbed into the animal’s system through the rumen wall, or can be consumed by bacteria to become microbial protein.

  • If adequate and suitable VFAs are present, NH3 is incorporated into microbial protein; otherwise, it is absorbed, particularly if the rumen pH is alkaline.


Ruminant digestive process

  • Once in the rumen, the feed begins to undergo fermentation.

  • Millions of microorganisms ingest the feed, turning out end products which serve as a major source of nutrients for the animal.


Ruminant digestive process

  • Some of the principle products formed are ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, and volatile fatty acids (VFAs).


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