John M. Murrin, et al. Liberty, Equality, Power A History of the American People. Chapter 23 War and Society 1914-1920. The Great War. Long-term Causes Militarism Imperialism Nationalism System of Alliances. The Great War. Short-term cause
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John M. Murrin, et al.Liberty, Equality, PowerA History of the American People
War and Society
Cartoon by H. J. Glintenkamp from July 1917 issue of The Masses. This cartoon was one of three cited by the Postmaster as violating the Espionage Act.
Dead Americans of the 38th Infantry at Mezy
July 21, 1918
Field of French and German dead in Champagne
Armenian Christians massacred by Turks
Russian Mass Grave
Americans burying their dead, Bois de Consenvove, France
November 8, 1918
Americans burying their dead, Bois de Consenvoye, France, 8 Nov 1918
Vittorio Orlando - Italian premier who wanted territory promised in Treaty of London (1915), and maybe more.David Lloyd George - British prime minister who wanted the support of the British public by punishing Germany.Georges Clemenceau - French prime minister who wanted the Treaty to prevent Germany from attacking France ever again.Woodrow Wilson - American president who wanted the League of Nations formed, and a fair treaty for Germany.
Senate opinion on the treaty was divided into three distinct views:
Supporters. Democrats loyal to Wilson wanted the treaty to be ratified in its original form without any amendments or reservations; some within this group were receptive to a small number of minor changes.
Reservationists. This group claimed to be in favor of the treaty, but only after including a series of reservations prior to ratification. Senator Lodge of Massachusetts was the leader of this faction and was personally dedicated to frustrating the aims of his rival, Wilson. Other senators in this group sincerely favored the treaty, but wanted some modification to protect vital American interests. The Reservationists were the largest of the three factions.
Irreconcilables. Isolationist senators, including Robert M. La Follette of Wisconsin, William E. Borah of Idaho and Hiram Johnson of California, opposed the treaty and American entry into the League of Nations under any circumstances. They had counseled against entering the war in the first place and now opposed participation in European affairs.