John m murrin et al liberty equality power a history of the american people
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John M. Murrin, et al. Liberty, Equality, Power A History of the American People. Chapter 23 War and Society 1914-1920. The Great War. Long-term Causes Militarism Imperialism Nationalism System of Alliances. The Great War. Short-term cause

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John M. Murrin, et al. Liberty, Equality, Power A History of the American People

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John m murrin et al liberty equality power a history of the american people

John M. Murrin, et al.Liberty, Equality, PowerA History of the American People

Chapter 23

War and Society

1914-1920


The great war

The Great War

  • Long-term Causes

    • Militarism

    • Imperialism

    • Nationalism

    • System of Alliances


The great war1

The Great War

  • Short-term cause

    • Archduke Ferdinand (heir to throne in Austria-Hungary) assassinated by Serbian nationalist in 1914

    • System of Alliances takes effect


European great war

“European” Great War

  • Wilson declared US neutrality

  • Lusitania sunk by German U-boats (submarines) in 1915

  • Germany signs Sussez pledge in 1916


Election of 1916

Election of 1916


Us involvement

US Involvement

  • Germany announced unlimited submarine warfare = US breaks diplomatic relations


Us involvement1

US Involvement

  • Zimmerman Note – proposed German-Mexican alliance


Us involvement2

US Involvement

  • Russian Revolution – new government signed peace treaty with Germany prompting Allied intervention in Russian civil war


Us involvement3

US Involvement

  • U.S. Declaration of War – April 6, 1917


Wilson s fourteen points

Wilson’s Fourteen Points

  • Abolish secret treaties

  • Freedom of the seas

  • Arms limitations

  • Self-determination

  • Minority rights

  • League of Nations


Mobilizing for war

Mobilizing for War

  • Committee on Public Information

    • George Creel

    • Propaganda to support the war effort


Mobilizing for war1

Mobilizing for War

  • Espionage & Sedition Acts

    • Schenck v U.S.

      • Civil rights can be limited if there is a “clear and present danger’” of harm the U.S.

“liberty steak”

“liberty cabbage”


Mobilizing for war2

Mobilizing for War

Cartoon by H. J. Glintenkamp from July 1917 issue of The Masses.  This cartoon was one of three cited by the Postmaster as violating the Espionage Act.


Mobilizing for war3

Mobilizing for War

  • War Industries Board

  • National War Labor Board


Mobilizing for war4

Mobilizing for War

  • Food Administration

    • Hebert Hoover

  • Fuel Administration


Mobilizing for war5

Mobilizing for War

  • Government control of railroads

    • legislation v. volunteerism

  • Liberty and Victory loans (2/3 initial cost)


Mobilizing for war6

Mobilizing for War

  • Conscription


Us troops over there

US Troops “Over There”

  • General John (Black Jack) Pershing

  • US Operations in Europe


John m murrin et al liberty equality power a history of the american people

Dead Americans of the 38th Infantry at Mezy

July 21, 1918


John m murrin et al liberty equality power a history of the american people

Field of French and German dead in Champagne


John m murrin et al liberty equality power a history of the american people

Armenian Christians massacred by Turks


John m murrin et al liberty equality power a history of the american people

Russian Mass Grave


John m murrin et al liberty equality power a history of the american people

Americans burying their dead, Bois de Consenvove, France

November 8, 1918

Americans burying their dead, Bois de Consenvoye, France, 8 Nov 1918


Modern war

Modern War

  • Tanks


Modern war1

Modern War

  • Submarines


Modern war2

Modern War

  • Airplanes


Modern war3

Modern War

  • Gas


Modern war4

Modern War

  • Trench Warfare


Surrender november 11 1918

Surrender – November 11, 1918


Treaty of versailles

Treaty of Versailles

  • The Big Four

    • Partisan perception of Wilson’s attendance

  • Compromise & the League of Nations


John m murrin et al liberty equality power a history of the american people

Vittorio Orlando - Italian premier who wanted territory promised in Treaty of London (1915), and maybe more.David Lloyd George - British prime minister who wanted the support of the British public by punishing Germany.Georges Clemenceau - French prime minister who wanted the Treaty to prevent Germany from attacking France ever again.Woodrow Wilson - American president who wanted the League of Nations formed, and a fair treaty for Germany.


Treaty of versailles1

Treaty of Versailles

  • Rhineland demilitarized

  • War guilt

  • Reparations

  • Military restrictions on Germany


Treaty of versailles2

Treaty of Versailles

  • Ratification in the US Senate

    • Irreconcilables & Reservationists opposed treaty

    • Wilson went on speaking tour to garner support


John m murrin et al liberty equality power a history of the american people

Senate opinion on the treaty was divided into three distinct views:

Supporters. Democrats loyal to Wilson wanted the treaty to be ratified in its original form without any amendments or reservations; some within this group were receptive to a small number of minor changes.

Reservationists. This group claimed to be in favor of the treaty, but only after including a series of reservations prior to ratification. Senator Lodge of Massachusetts was the leader of this faction and was personally dedicated to frustrating the aims of his rival, Wilson. Other senators in this group sincerely favored the treaty, but wanted some modification to protect vital American interests. The Reservationists were the largest of the three factions.

Irreconcilables. Isolationist senators, including Robert M. La Follette of Wisconsin, William E. Borah of Idaho and Hiram Johnson of California, opposed the treaty and American entry into the League of Nations under any circumstances. They had counseled against entering the war in the first place and now opposed participation in European affairs.


Treaty of versailles3

Treaty of Versailles

  • Ratification in the US Senate

    • Wilson collapsed on the speaking trail – then suffered a major stroke in the White House

    • Senate voted on the treaty with the Lodge reservations attached


Treaty of versailles4

Treaty of Versailles

  • Treaty rejected - twice


Election of 1920

Election of 1920

  • Warren G. Harding (Rep.)

    • Promised a ‘return to normalcy’

    • Return to pre-WWI isolationism


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