chapter 13 the high middle ages section 1 the crusades begin
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Chapter 13:The High Middle Ages Section 1:The Crusades Begin

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Chapter 13:The High Middle Ages Section 1:The Crusades Begin. Mr. Perfect World History. A. The Backgrounds of the Crusades. A variety of causes led to religious wars called the Crusades, which spanned more than two centuries. A. The Backgrounds of the Crusades. The Growth of Papal Power

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a the backgrounds of the crusades
A. The Backgrounds of the Crusades
  • A variety of causes led to religious wars called the Crusades, which spanned more than two centuries.
a the backgrounds of the crusades1
A. The Backgrounds of the Crusades
  • The Growth of Papal Power
    • In early medieval Europe, lawlessness and violence were common.
    • During the late 900s, bishops and Church councils in France promoted a social reform movement called the Peace of God.
    • By the terms of its ruling, those who broke the peace-by robbing the poor or a church or attacking priests or other clergy-could be excommunicated, or excluded from the church.
a the backgrounds of the crusades2
A. The Backgrounds of the Crusades
  • The Pope Calls for a Crusade
    • Like Pope Gregory VII, Urban believed in the supreme power of the pope.
    • In 1095, at the Council of Clermont in France, he called on western leaders to join in a war to win back the Holy Land.
    • This cause was to be a crusade, from the Latin word for cross.
b the first and second crusades
B. The First and Second Crusades
  • During the First Crusade, Jerusalem was recaptured and crusader states were established in the eastern Mediterranean
b the first and second crusades1
B. The First and Second Crusades
  • The Quest for Jerusalem
    • The First Crusade, which began in 1096, was the first of a series of wars between European Christians and Muslims.
    • In 1097, the crusaders took the city of Nicaea, near Constantinople, from the Turks.
    • Then, a Christian army marched southeast across Anatolia-or present-day Turkey-and conquered Edessa, which lies northeast of the Mediterranean Sea.
b the first and second crusades2
B. The first and Second Crusades
  • The Second Crusade
    • In 1144, the Muslims captured the crusader state of Edessa
    • Pope Eugenius III called for another crusade to protect western interests in the eastern Mediterranean.
    • This time, two of the most powerful monarchs in Europe, King Louis VII of France and Emperor Conrad III of Germany, led the crusaders.
c later crusades
C. Later Crusades
  • The Crusades had lasting effects on medieval Europe
c later crusades1
C. Later Crusades
  • The Third and Forth Crusades
    • The Third Crusade, which lasted from 1189 to 1192, was the direct result of Saladin’s victory.
    • 3 European rulers joined together to fight Jerusalem.
    • King Richard I was also called the Lionhearted.
c later crusades2
C. Later Crusades
  • The Results of the Crusades
    • Throughout the thirteenth century, crusades continued to be organized.
    • For one reason or another-political schemes, poor preparation, and the deaths of key western leaders-most of these efforts failed.
    • The Crusades ended in 1291 after almost 200 years of fighting
a the revival of trade
A. The Revival of Trade
  • The development of trades fairs and trades centers created an interest in western European trade in the later Middle Ages.
a the revival of trade1
A. The Revival of Trade
  • Trade at Home and Abroad
    • Fairs, where merchants could sell and exchange goods, offered one of the means for local trade.
    • Fairs grew up at key locations on trading routes, which were often near rivers.
    • Held at regular intervals, fairs offered a safe setting for merchants to do business.
a the revival of trade2
A. The Revival of Trade
  • Regional Trade Routes
    • Trade routes in the later Middle Ages centered on two regions.
    • The northern region was in the area of the Baltic and North Seas.
    • The southern region was in the area of the Mediterranean.
b the growth of towns
B. The Growth of Towns
  • The growth in trade was linked to the development of towns and cities, especially in northern Italy and its surrounding regions.
b the growth of towns1
B. The Growth of Towns
  • Merchants and the New Middle Class
    • It has been estimated that 1,000 new towns developed in western Europe.
    • The growth of towns was directly related to the expansion of trade.
    • Merchants settled at important crossroads on trade routes.
b the growth of towns2
B. The Growth of Towns
  • Establishing Guilds
    • Merchants and craftspeople living in cities formed groups or associations called guilds.
    • Guilds linked people in the same specialty or craft together much like a trade union does today.
    • Merchants, bakers, weavers, tailors, dyers, goldsmiths, and many other types of workers had guilds.
c plague and social upheaval
C. Plague and Social Upheaval
  • In the fourteenth century, western Europe suffered a series of disasters, in particular, the plague called the Black Death.
c plague and social upheaval1
C. Plague and Social Upheaval
  • The Spread of the Plague
    • Between 1347 and 1352, the Black Death caused the deaths of about 25 million people.
    • It spread from Asia to Sicily and then north through Italy into the rest of Europe, Scandinavia, and even as far away as Iceland and Greenland.
    • At the time, no one knew how the epidemic, or a disease that affects a large number of people, spread or how to protect against it.
c plague and social upheaval2
C. Plague and Social Upheaval
  • Consequences of the Black Death
    • The Black Death may have been the most significant natural event during the Middle Ages.
    • It had a huge effect on all the areas it touched-population, economics, and society.
    • As a result of the plague, the population of entire villages died and many fields were not planted.
d life and culture
D. Life and Culture
  • The later Middle Ages witnessed such cultural achievements as the beginnings of universities and the development of literature.
d life and culture1
D. Life and Culture
  • Philosophy, Education, and Literature
    • The most important philosopher during the High Middle Ages was St.Thomas Aquinas.
    • A great admirer of the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, Aquinas wanted to unite classical, Christian, and worldly knowledge into a single system of belief.
    • At this time as well, the first universities were founded in western Europe.
d life and culture2
D. Life and Culture
  • Two Medieval Writers
    • Italian poet Dante Alighieri wrote in the vernacular, or the languages spoken by the residents of Florence, his native city in Italy.
    • Today Dante is regarded as the Father of Italian Literature , and his epic masterpiece, The Divine Comedy, is often considered the most important Christian poem.
    • Dante’s example encouraged other poets to write in their own vernacular language.
chapter 13 the high middle ages section 3 organized kingdoms develop
Chapter 13: The High Middle AgesSection 3: Organized Kingdoms Develop

Mr. Perfect

World history

a england
A. England
  • Conflicts arose in England as a result of the growth of royal power.
a england1
A. England
  • Henry II, Common Law, and Conflicts with the Church
    • King Henry II of England, who ruled from 1154 to 1189, became one of the most powerful European monarchs.
    • He controlled England and half of what is present-day France.
    • Partly because of their interests, culture and learning flourished in both regions.
a england2
A. England
  • King John, the Magna Carta, and Parliament
    • King John was the youngest son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine.
    • He ruled from 1199 to 1216.
    • Troubles with his noble began because John insisted that as king, he had the power to do whatever he wished.
b france
B. France
  • The Capetian Dynasty in France succeeded in laying the foundation for a nation-state.
b france1
B. France
  • The Capetians
    • The election of Hugh Capet as king in 987 ended a long struggle among the descendants of Charlemagne.
    • Starting out with a small region around Paris, Hugh Capet laid the foundation of the French monarchy.
    • His line, called the Capetian Dynasty, lasted for more than 300 years.
b france2
B. France
  • The Holy Roman Empire
    • In 1337, England invaded Normandy in France, which caused the beginning of the Hundred Years’ War.
    • The war extended over the reigns of five English and five French kings and lasted from 1337 to 1453.
    • The first phase of the war was marked by English successes under King Edward III.
c the holy roman empire and spain
C. The Holy Roman Empire and Spain
  • Alliances and conflicts united and divided Europe, and Christians succeeded in regaining control of Spain from the Muslims.
c the holy roman empire and spain1
C. The Holy Roman Empire and Spain
  • The Holy Roman Empire
    • Charlemagne’s empire continued in various forms for centuries after his death in 814.
    • In 962, the German king Otto I was crowned emperor by Pope John XII.
    • In addition to ruling Germany, Otto now had control of northern Italy.
c the holy roman empire and spain2
C. The Holy Roman Empire and Spain
  • Christians Reconquer Spain
    • As you have read, the Muslims conquered much of Spain in the early 700s
    • In the mid-1100s, Portugal succeeded in becoming an independent kingdom
    • Beginning in the early 1200s, the Christian states of Aragon and Castile in northern Spain began a determined effort to drive the Muslims out of that region.
chapter 13 the high middle ages section 4 the roman catholic church faces crises
Chapter 13: The High Middle AgesSection 4: The Roman Catholic Church Faces Crises

Mr. Perfect

World History

a the papacy at avignon and the great schism
A. The Papacy at Avignon and the Great Schism
  • For more than a century, the papacy was troubled by its physical separation from Rome and by rival popes claiming authority.
a the papacy at avignon and the great schism1
A. The Papacy at Avignon and the Great Schism
  • From Rome to Avignon
    • Since the days of the early Christian Church, Rome had been a symbol for Christians.
    • Over time, the bishop of Rome became the most powerful bishop and worldwide leader of the Church.
    • In 1309, a French pope, Clement V, moved the seat of the papacy from Rome to Avignon, in France, to avoid civil wars in Italy.
a the papacy at avignon and the great schism2
A. The Papacy at Avignon and the Great Schism
  • The Great Schism
    • Pope Gregory XI returned the papacy to Rome in 1377.
    • He died a year later.
    • The cardinals-the high-ranking church officials-elected an Italian pope, Urban VI.
b internal tensions grow
B. Internal Tensions Grow
  • By the fourteenth century, debates within the Roman Catholic Church had increased.
b internal tensions grow1
B. Internal Tensions Grow
  • John Wycliffe Calls for Reforms
    • Before the Great Schism, the most serious internal conflict among Christians had been the split between Rome and Constantinople in 1054.
    • The patriarch, or leading bishop, of Constantinople, had refused to acknowledge the authority of the pope in Rome.
    • As a result, two branches of Christianity developed: the western European Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Churches.
b internal tensions grow2
B. Internal Tensions Grow
  • Challenges to the Church
    • Wycliffe’s ideas also influenced the Czech religious reformer Jan Hus.
    • Hus objected particularly to the Church’s sale of indulgences.
    • For many years, the Church allowed people to buy an indulgence instead of doing penance to gain forgiveness for their sins.