Chapter 13 the high middle ages section 1 the crusades begin
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Chapter 13:The High Middle Ages Section 1:The Crusades Begin. Mr. Perfect World History. A. The Backgrounds of the Crusades. A variety of causes led to religious wars called the Crusades, which spanned more than two centuries. A. The Backgrounds of the Crusades. The Growth of Papal Power

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Chapter 13:The High Middle Ages Section 1:The Crusades Begin

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Chapter 13:The High Middle AgesSection 1:The Crusades Begin

Mr. Perfect

World History

A. The Backgrounds of the Crusades

  • A variety of causes led to religious wars called the Crusades, which spanned more than two centuries.

A. The Backgrounds of the Crusades

  • The Growth of Papal Power

    • In early medieval Europe, lawlessness and violence were common.

    • During the late 900s, bishops and Church councils in France promoted a social reform movement called the Peace of God.

    • By the terms of its ruling, those who broke the peace-by robbing the poor or a church or attacking priests or other clergy-could be excommunicated, or excluded from the church.

A. The Backgrounds of the Crusades

  • The Pope Calls for a Crusade

    • Like Pope Gregory VII, Urban believed in the supreme power of the pope.

    • In 1095, at the Council of Clermont in France, he called on western leaders to join in a war to win back the Holy Land.

    • This cause was to be a crusade, from the Latin word for cross.

B. The First and Second Crusades

  • During the First Crusade, Jerusalem was recaptured and crusader states were established in the eastern Mediterranean

B. The First and Second Crusades

  • The Quest for Jerusalem

    • The First Crusade, which began in 1096, was the first of a series of wars between European Christians and Muslims.

    • In 1097, the crusaders took the city of Nicaea, near Constantinople, from the Turks.

    • Then, a Christian army marched southeast across Anatolia-or present-day Turkey-and conquered Edessa, which lies northeast of the Mediterranean Sea.

B. The first and Second Crusades

  • The Second Crusade

    • In 1144, the Muslims captured the crusader state of Edessa

    • Pope Eugenius III called for another crusade to protect western interests in the eastern Mediterranean.

    • This time, two of the most powerful monarchs in Europe, King Louis VII of France and Emperor Conrad III of Germany, led the crusaders.

C. Later Crusades

  • The Crusades had lasting effects on medieval Europe

C. Later Crusades

  • The Third and Forth Crusades

    • The Third Crusade, which lasted from 1189 to 1192, was the direct result of Saladin’s victory.

    • 3 European rulers joined together to fight Jerusalem.

    • King Richard I was also called the Lionhearted.

C. Later Crusades

  • The Results of the Crusades

    • Throughout the thirteenth century, crusades continued to be organized.

    • For one reason or another-political schemes, poor preparation, and the deaths of key western leaders-most of these efforts failed.

    • The Crusades ended in 1291 after almost 200 years of fighting

Chapter 13:The High Middle AgesSection 2:Trade and Towns Grow

Mr. Perfect

World History

A. The Revival of Trade

  • The development of trades fairs and trades centers created an interest in western European trade in the later Middle Ages.

A. The Revival of Trade

  • Trade at Home and Abroad

    • Fairs, where merchants could sell and exchange goods, offered one of the means for local trade.

    • Fairs grew up at key locations on trading routes, which were often near rivers.

    • Held at regular intervals, fairs offered a safe setting for merchants to do business.

A. The Revival of Trade

  • Regional Trade Routes

    • Trade routes in the later Middle Ages centered on two regions.

    • The northern region was in the area of the Baltic and North Seas.

    • The southern region was in the area of the Mediterranean.

B. The Growth of Towns

  • The growth in trade was linked to the development of towns and cities, especially in northern Italy and its surrounding regions.

B. The Growth of Towns

  • Merchants and the New Middle Class

    • It has been estimated that 1,000 new towns developed in western Europe.

    • The growth of towns was directly related to the expansion of trade.

    • Merchants settled at important crossroads on trade routes.

B. The Growth of Towns

  • Establishing Guilds

    • Merchants and craftspeople living in cities formed groups or associations called guilds.

    • Guilds linked people in the same specialty or craft together much like a trade union does today.

    • Merchants, bakers, weavers, tailors, dyers, goldsmiths, and many other types of workers had guilds.

C. Plague and Social Upheaval

  • In the fourteenth century, western Europe suffered a series of disasters, in particular, the plague called the Black Death.

C. Plague and Social Upheaval

  • The Spread of the Plague

    • Between 1347 and 1352, the Black Death caused the deaths of about 25 million people.

    • It spread from Asia to Sicily and then north through Italy into the rest of Europe, Scandinavia, and even as far away as Iceland and Greenland.

    • At the time, no one knew how the epidemic, or a disease that affects a large number of people, spread or how to protect against it.

C. Plague and Social Upheaval

  • Consequences of the Black Death

    • The Black Death may have been the most significant natural event during the Middle Ages.

    • It had a huge effect on all the areas it touched-population, economics, and society.

    • As a result of the plague, the population of entire villages died and many fields were not planted.

D. Life and Culture

  • The later Middle Ages witnessed such cultural achievements as the beginnings of universities and the development of literature.

D. Life and Culture

  • Philosophy, Education, and Literature

    • The most important philosopher during the High Middle Ages was St.Thomas Aquinas.

    • A great admirer of the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, Aquinas wanted to unite classical, Christian, and worldly knowledge into a single system of belief.

    • At this time as well, the first universities were founded in western Europe.

D. Life and Culture

  • Two Medieval Writers

    • Italian poet Dante Alighieri wrote in the vernacular, or the languages spoken by the residents of Florence, his native city in Italy.

    • Today Dante is regarded as the Father of Italian Literature , and his epic masterpiece, The Divine Comedy, is often considered the most important Christian poem.

    • Dante’s example encouraged other poets to write in their own vernacular language.

Chapter 13: The High Middle AgesSection 3: Organized Kingdoms Develop

Mr. Perfect

World history

A. England

  • Conflicts arose in England as a result of the growth of royal power.

A. England

  • Henry II, Common Law, and Conflicts with the Church

    • King Henry II of England, who ruled from 1154 to 1189, became one of the most powerful European monarchs.

    • He controlled England and half of what is present-day France.

    • Partly because of their interests, culture and learning flourished in both regions.

A. England

  • King John, the Magna Carta, and Parliament

    • King John was the youngest son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine.

    • He ruled from 1199 to 1216.

    • Troubles with his noble began because John insisted that as king, he had the power to do whatever he wished.

B. France

  • The Capetian Dynasty in France succeeded in laying the foundation for a nation-state.

B. France

  • The Capetians

    • The election of Hugh Capet as king in 987 ended a long struggle among the descendants of Charlemagne.

    • Starting out with a small region around Paris, Hugh Capet laid the foundation of the French monarchy.

    • His line, called the Capetian Dynasty, lasted for more than 300 years.

B. France

  • The Holy Roman Empire

    • In 1337, England invaded Normandy in France, which caused the beginning of the Hundred Years’ War.

    • The war extended over the reigns of five English and five French kings and lasted from 1337 to 1453.

    • The first phase of the war was marked by English successes under King Edward III.

C. The Holy Roman Empire and Spain

  • Alliances and conflicts united and divided Europe, and Christians succeeded in regaining control of Spain from the Muslims.

C. The Holy Roman Empire and Spain

  • The Holy Roman Empire

    • Charlemagne’s empire continued in various forms for centuries after his death in 814.

    • In 962, the German king Otto I was crowned emperor by Pope John XII.

    • In addition to ruling Germany, Otto now had control of northern Italy.

C. The Holy Roman Empire and Spain

  • Christians Reconquer Spain

    • As you have read, the Muslims conquered much of Spain in the early 700s

    • In the mid-1100s, Portugal succeeded in becoming an independent kingdom

    • Beginning in the early 1200s, the Christian states of Aragon and Castile in northern Spain began a determined effort to drive the Muslims out of that region.

Chapter 13: The High Middle AgesSection 4: The Roman Catholic Church Faces Crises

Mr. Perfect

World History

A. The Papacy at Avignon and the Great Schism

  • For more than a century, the papacy was troubled by its physical separation from Rome and by rival popes claiming authority.

A. The Papacy at Avignon and the Great Schism

  • From Rome to Avignon

    • Since the days of the early Christian Church, Rome had been a symbol for Christians.

    • Over time, the bishop of Rome became the most powerful bishop and worldwide leader of the Church.

    • In 1309, a French pope, Clement V, moved the seat of the papacy from Rome to Avignon, in France, to avoid civil wars in Italy.

A. The Papacy at Avignon and the Great Schism

  • The Great Schism

    • Pope Gregory XI returned the papacy to Rome in 1377.

    • He died a year later.

    • The cardinals-the high-ranking church officials-elected an Italian pope, Urban VI.

B. Internal Tensions Grow

  • By the fourteenth century, debates within the Roman Catholic Church had increased.

B. Internal Tensions Grow

  • John Wycliffe Calls for Reforms

    • Before the Great Schism, the most serious internal conflict among Christians had been the split between Rome and Constantinople in 1054.

    • The patriarch, or leading bishop, of Constantinople, had refused to acknowledge the authority of the pope in Rome.

    • As a result, two branches of Christianity developed: the western European Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Churches.

B. Internal Tensions Grow

  • Challenges to the Church

    • Wycliffe’s ideas also influenced the Czech religious reformer Jan Hus.

    • Hus objected particularly to the Church’s sale of indulgences.

    • For many years, the Church allowed people to buy an indulgence instead of doing penance to gain forgiveness for their sins.

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