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Aborigines. Who are they?. Aborigines. “First Australians” Aborigine: Latin meaning “from the beginning”. When did they come?. When? Debated!. 20,000-60,000 years ago Maybe up to 100,000 years ago. Where did they come from?. How did they come?. Disagreement…. Land bridge

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Aborigines1
Aborigines

  • “First Australians”

  • Aborigine: Latin meaning “from the beginning”



When debated
When? Debated!

  • 20,000-60,000 years ago

  • Maybe up to 100,000 years ago




Disagreement
Disagreement…

  • Land bridge

  • Island Hoppers


Aboriginal clans
Aboriginal Clans

  • Clan – language group who owned a section of land

  • 100 people

  • One or two extended families (bands)

  • Bands hunted and gathered together

  • Met with other clans

  • Totem poles – sign of spiritual link to the land


Aboriginal dreamtime
Aboriginal Dreamtime

  • Stories and customs relating and explaining creation

  • Example: Wayambeh


This image from the archives of LIFE magazine first appeared on December 12, 1955 Australian Aborigines Filled with the Spirit of the Kangaroo, Dancing to Honor the Sacred Marsupial


The walkabout

“The Walkabout” on December 12, 1955 Australian Aborigines Filled with the Spirit of the Kangaroo, Dancing to Honor the Sacred Marsupial


A walkabout is
A “walkabout” is… on December 12, 1955 Australian Aborigines Filled with the Spirit of the Kangaroo, Dancing to Honor the Sacred Marsupial

  • A spiritual journey in which the Aborigines practice the traditional ways of their ancestors

  • A term coined by Europeans


An end to aboriginal culture
An end to Aboriginal Culture on December 12, 1955 Australian Aborigines Filled with the Spirit of the Kangaroo, Dancing to Honor the Sacred Marsupial


Europeans and sovereignty
Europeans and Sovereignty on December 12, 1955 Australian Aborigines Filled with the Spirit of the Kangaroo, Dancing to Honor the Sacred Marsupial

  • Saw no permanent settlements

  • Viewed Aborigines as “savages”


William dampier
William Dampier on December 12, 1955 Australian Aborigines Filled with the Spirit of the Kangaroo, Dancing to Honor the Sacred Marsupial

  • English explorer – 1688

  • Wrote that the Aborigines were, “the miserablest people in the world.”


James cook
James Cook on December 12, 1955 Australian Aborigines Filled with the Spirit of the Kangaroo, Dancing to Honor the Sacred Marsupial

  • English explorer – 1770

  • “…in reality they are far more happier than we Europeans…In short they seemed to set no value upon anything we gave them, nor would they part with anything of their own for one article we could offer them.”


Laws and ordinances

Laws and Ordinances on December 12, 1955 Australian Aborigines Filled with the Spirit of the Kangaroo, Dancing to Honor the Sacred Marsupial


The nanya tribe lower darling river nsw soon after their capture in 1894
The on December 12, 1955 Australian Aborigines Filled with the Spirit of the Kangaroo, Dancing to Honor the Sacred MarsupialNanya tribe (lower Darling river, NSW), soon after their capture in 1894


Aboriginal protection act 1869
Aboriginal Protection Act - 1869 on December 12, 1955 Australian Aborigines Filled with the Spirit of the Kangaroo, Dancing to Honor the Sacred Marsupial

  • Passed to “protect” the Aborigines

  • Segregation law

  • Restricted housing, employment, property rights, and social and daily life


The Half-Caste Act of 1886 on December 12, 1955 Australian Aborigines Filled with the Spirit of the Kangaroo, Dancing to Honor the Sacred Marsupial

  • Extension of Aborigines Protection Act

  • Removed Aboriginals of mixed descent from Aboriginal stations

  • Adult half-castes forced to assimilate

  • Children “indentured”


Aboriginal ordinance of 1918
Aboriginal Ordinance of 1918 on December 12, 1955 Australian Aborigines Filled with the Spirit of the Kangaroo, Dancing to Honor the Sacred Marsupial

  • First Commonwealth law for governing Indigenous people

  • Government control over Aboriginal lives

  • Continued removal of half-castes

  • Aboriginal stations became work stations

  • “Lost Generation” or “Stolen Generation”


Aboriginal land rights act of 1976
Aboriginal Land Rights Act of 1976 on December 12, 1955 Australian Aborigines Filled with the Spirit of the Kangaroo, Dancing to Honor the Sacred Marsupial

  • 1st time Aborigines could legally claim rights to land based on traditional occupation

  • Restricted

  • 20 year limit (1997)

  • Problem: lack of evidence


City aborigines
“City” Aborigines on December 12, 1955 Australian Aborigines Filled with the Spirit of the Kangaroo, Dancing to Honor the Sacred Marsupial

  • Substandard housing

  • Low levels of education

  • Poor health

  • Low levels of employment

  • Considerable poverty


How do european australians feel about the horrible injustice of the aborigines
How do “European” Australians feel about the “horrible injustice” of the Aborigines?

  • Embarrassed

  • Resentful


Mark Twain once wrote after visiting Australia: injustice” of the Aborigines?

“The Whites always mean well when they take human fish out of the ocean and try to make them dry and warm and happy and comfortable in a chicken coop.”