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AMERICAN IMMIGRATION. or why is everyone coming here???. PUSH-PULL THEORY. Reasons for leaving Europe and Asia Things that cause immigrants to leave their home countries and come to the United States. PUSH FACTORS (reasons people leave ). Overpopulation and no land available

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american immigration

AMERICANIMMIGRATION

or why is everyone coming here???

push pull theory
PUSH-PULL THEORY

Reasons for leaving Europe and Asia

Things that cause immigrants to leave their home countries and come to the United States.

push factors reasons people leave
PUSH FACTORS (reasons people leave)

Overpopulation and no land available

Pogroms – killing of Jews in Russia

War draft laws (conscription)

Lack of economic opportunities (means no jobs)

pull factors things that existed already in america
PULL FACTORS(things that existed already in America)

Peaceful country

Availability of land (Homestead Act)

Need for workers in U.S.

Religious freedom, liberty, and tradition of democracy

Letters from friends and relatives in America

old immigrants 1607 1860
Old Immigrants (1607-1860)

Reasons why people immigrated:

Political – left because of war in Europe

African Slaves – not considered immigrants b/c they were forced here

Indentured Servants – people whose passage was paid by someone else in exchange for 7 years of work

Religious – England was not tolerant of religions other than Anglican Protestantism

. Economic – few jobs; limited land; debtors & criminals deported to “colonies”

old immigrants
Old Immigrants

England, France, Ireland, Germany

Asia – China, Japan

French & Mexican (from Louisiana Purchase and Mexican Cession)

African Slaves

new immigrants 1880 1920
New Immigrants (1880-1920)

Where did “New Immigrants” come from?

Poland, Russia, Italy, Greece, Austria-Hungary, Turkey

americans welcomed immigrants in the 1880s and early 1900s because
Americans Welcomed Immigrants in the 1880s and early 1900s because:

Labor – needed people to fill factory jobs

Settlers – settled and farmed the West

Consumers – purchased the products of industry and agriculture

Soldiers – served to increase nations’ military power

Special Abilities – skills like metal working and masonry

Humanitarian – tradition of U.S. being a haven or shelter for the oppressed

impact of the new immigrants
Impact of the “New Immigrants”

Economic

Agricultural – Settled in Midwest and Great Plains

Transportation – built canals, railroads (mostly Irish)

Mining & Industry – Poles & Slavs worked the mines; Germans built chemical industry

Consumers & Workers – increased demand for goods and increased industrial growth

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Political

Because they were poor they settled in urban areas called ghettos

Political bosses took advantage of them by giving them jobs and places to live in exchange for their vote

Cultural

Food, music, art, literature, holiday traditions & sports

problems of the new immigrants
Problems of the New Immigrants

Crossing the ocean & arriving at Ellis Island, New York

Discrimination upon arrival

american opposition to new immigrants
American Opposition to New Immigrants

Americans begin to oppose immigration mainly from the end of the 19th century through the 1920s. The government tried to limit the number of immigrants from Asia and Southern & Easter Europe.

Americans said that the frontier was closed; immigrants could no longer secure free or cheap land

American industry claimed it was no longer expanding and had no need of additional immigrant workers

slide15

Immigrants that were now arriving were from Southern & Eastern Europe. They were culturally different and settled in cities, creating ethnic enclaves (China Town, Little Italy)

“New” immigrants were considered to be intellectually & physically inferior to “old” immigrants

slide16

Nativism – “America for native-born Americans!”

  • Early Nativist group was the “Know-Nothing” Party
    • It condemned the German and Irish at first and the “New” immigrants later for:
    • Taking jobs from native-born Americans
    • For being clannish or keeping to themselves
    • Failing to assimilate
immigration today
IMMIGRATION TODAY

In the 1970s, the population grew from 203 to 226 million as well as became more diverse

About 500,000 immigrants arrived in the U.S. each year in the 70s

Highest number since the early 1900s when the U.S. had an open-door policy (the U.S. allowed unrestricted immigration)

Most of these people migrated from: Philippines, Vietnam, Korea, China, India, Laos and Cambodia

slide18

Also a huge wave of illegal immigrants, most from Mexico (upwards of 5 million by 1980). Came to work as migrant farm workers and unskilled laborers

There were legal Mexicans and about 800,000 refugees from Cuba when Fidel Castro took over the country

Earliest Cubans were middle-upper class and transformed Miami from a resort city into a bustling Hispanic commercial center

slide19

1980 – Castro let any Cubans out freely

    • President Carter welcomed them into the U.S.
    • But, riots broke out: African Americans & non-Hispanic whites objected and feared that the new immigrants would compete with them for already scarce jobs
    • The U.S. foreign-born population has reached a record high, although the rate at which people came to America has slowed
      • About 1.2 million people arrived in the U.S. in 2002, compared with the 2.4 million who arrived in 2001
    • What is the trend of immigration today in 2011?
slide20

What is the official language of the United States of America?

Answer: There is NO OFFICIAL language of the U.S. But, what language do we expect everyone to be able to speak?

2010 census report
2010 Census Report

Total U.S. population = 308,745,538 people

It is predicted that by the year 2050, over 50% of the population of the United States will be of Hispanic origin.

¿Hablasespañol?

immigration theories
IMMIGRATION THEORIES
  • Assimilation:
    • The minority group adopts the traditions and customs of the dominant culture and giving up their own traditions
  • What does it look like?
    • Native Americans being forced to speak English and dress in European style clothing
    • Immigrants no longer speaking their native language in the home so their children learn English
slide23

What does it look like?

    • “Spanglish”
    • American Chinese food
    • Marriages/relationships between people of different races or cultural backgrounds (think President Obama)
  • Melting Pot Theory
    • Mixing of different cultures, races, traditions and languages to create a brand new culture
slide24

Cultural Pluralism or “The Salad Bowl” Theory

    • Each culture maintains its own unique identity in society
  • What does it look like?
    • Immigrant not learning English
    • “para el espanol, oprimara la estrella
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