AMERICAN IMMIGRATION. or why is everyone coming here???. PUSH-PULL THEORY. Reasons for leaving Europe and Asia Things that cause immigrants to leave their home countries and come to the United States. PUSH FACTORS (reasons people leave ). Overpopulation and no land available
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or why is everyone coming here???
Reasons for leaving Europe and Asia
Things that cause immigrants to leave their home countries and come to the United States.
Overpopulation and no land available
Pogroms – killing of Jews in Russia
War draft laws (conscription)
Lack of economic opportunities (means no jobs)
Availability of land (Homestead Act)
Need for workers in U.S.
Religious freedom, liberty, and tradition of democracy
Letters from friends and relatives in America
Reasons why people immigrated:
Political – left because of war in Europe
African Slaves – not considered immigrants b/c they were forced here
Indentured Servants – people whose passage was paid by someone else in exchange for 7 years of work
Religious – England was not tolerant of religions other than Anglican Protestantism
. Economic – few jobs; limited land; debtors & criminals deported to “colonies”
England, France, Ireland, Germany
Asia – China, Japan
French & Mexican (from Louisiana Purchase and Mexican Cession)
Where did “New Immigrants” come from?
Poland, Russia, Italy, Greece, Austria-Hungary, Turkey
Labor – needed people to fill factory jobs
Settlers – settled and farmed the West
Consumers – purchased the products of industry and agriculture
Soldiers – served to increase nations’ military power
Special Abilities – skills like metal working and masonry
Humanitarian – tradition of U.S. being a haven or shelter for the oppressed
Agricultural – Settled in Midwest and Great Plains
Transportation – built canals, railroads (mostly Irish)
Mining & Industry – Poles & Slavs worked the mines; Germans built chemical industry
Consumers & Workers – increased demand for goods and increased industrial growth
Because they were poor they settled in urban areas called ghettos
Political bosses took advantage of them by giving them jobs and places to live in exchange for their vote
Food, music, art, literature, holiday traditions & sports
Crossing the ocean & arriving at Ellis Island, New York
Discrimination upon arrival
Americans begin to oppose immigration mainly from the end of the 19th century through the 1920s. The government tried to limit the number of immigrants from Asia and Southern & Easter Europe.
Americans said that the frontier was closed; immigrants could no longer secure free or cheap land
American industry claimed it was no longer expanding and had no need of additional immigrant workers
Immigrants that were now arriving were from Southern & Eastern Europe. They were culturally different and settled in cities, creating ethnic enclaves (China Town, Little Italy)
“New” immigrants were considered to be intellectually & physically inferior to “old” immigrants
In the 1970s, the population grew from 203 to 226 million as well as became more diverse
About 500,000 immigrants arrived in the U.S. each year in the 70s
Highest number since the early 1900s when the U.S. had an open-door policy (the U.S. allowed unrestricted immigration)
Most of these people migrated from: Philippines, Vietnam, Korea, China, India, Laos and Cambodia
Also a huge wave of illegal immigrants, most from Mexico (upwards of 5 million by 1980). Came to work as migrant farm workers and unskilled laborers
There were legal Mexicans and about 800,000 refugees from Cuba when Fidel Castro took over the country
Earliest Cubans were middle-upper class and transformed Miami from a resort city into a bustling Hispanic commercial center
What is the official language of the United States of America?
Answer: There is NO OFFICIAL language of the U.S. But, what language do we expect everyone to be able to speak?
Total U.S. population = 308,745,538 people
It is predicted that by the year 2050, over 50% of the population of the United States will be of Hispanic origin.