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North Africa. Population Patterns. The People Coasts- influenced by European cultures Primary influence is a mix of indigenous and Arab cultures Indigenous people= Berbers Most are farmers , but many were nomadic

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Population patterns
Population Patterns

  • The People

    • Coasts- influenced by Europeancultures

    • Primary influence is a mix of indigenousand Arabcultures

      • Indigenous people= Berbers

        • Most are farmers, but many were nomadic

          • People who movefrom place to place depending on the seasonand availability of grassfor grazing and water.

          • Most populousin the Atlas Mountains and Sahara Desert


Population patterns1
Population Patterns

  • Arabs= people who speak Arabic

    • Nomadic Bedouinsmigrated to N Africa from the Mid East

    • Egyptwas the primary gateway for Arabs migratingto N Africa

      • Can be found herdinganimals in the desert where there is enough vegetationto support herdsor water for growing food


History and government
History and Government

  • N Africa’s proximityto Europeand the Mid Easthas made it vulnerable to invasions

  • Early Peoples and Civilizations

    • About 10,000 yrs ago, huntersand gathererssettled in N Africa

    • 6000 BC- farming communities rose along the Nileand Mediterranean

      • These farmers were among the first to domesticateplants and animals

        • Adapt them from wildfor uses as food, clothing, and transportation


History and government1
History and Government

  • Egyptian civilization developed about 6,000 yrs ago in Nile River Valley

    • Used sophisticated irrigationsystems to enable farmers to grow twocrops each year

    • Developed a calendarwith a 365-dayyear

    • Built impressive pyramidsas tombs for pharaohs

    • Invented a form of picture writing- hieroglyphics


History and government2
History and Government

  • Invasions

    • 7th century invasions of Arabsheavily influenced the culturesof N Africa

      • Berbers assimilatedwith Arab cultures in Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco- survived through the Ottomanrule (1922)

    • Muslim and Jewish exiles fleeing Christianpersecution in Spaininfused Moroccowith Spanish culture in the 1400s


History and government3
History and Government

  • European colonialrule also affected people and culturesin N Africa

    • French influenced Algeria

      • Geometric boundaries- lines that follow straightlines and do not account for naturaland culturalfeatures- separate Libya, Egypt, and Algeria

        • These were drawnby Europeans

        • Caused conflictbetween the new countries

          • Local practicesof gov’t were not the same as Europeanideas of governing


History and government4
History and Government

  • 1800s- well-educatedurban middleclass developed in N Africa

    • Adopted ideas of nationalism- belief in the right of an ethnicgroup to have its own independence

      • Stirred developments for self-rule

  • Independence

    • Egyptgained independence from UKin 1922

      • Suez Canal has made Egypt a key regional power

      • Also important center for Arabnationalism


  • History and government5
    History and Government

    • Algeriagained independence from Francewhen a strong nationalistmovement led to a civil war in the mid 1900s

      • Since independence in 1962- Algeria has developed its resourcesand increased its standard of living

      • However, a civil war in the 1990skilled over 100,000 people

    • 1951- Libyawon independence from Italy

      • 1969- Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi overthrew the monarchy

    • 1956- Tunisiagained independence from France

    • 1956- Moroccowon independence from France

      • Constitutional monarchytoday


    Culture
    Culture

    • Religion and Language

      • When Arabsinvaded, they brought the religionof Islam

        • Most belong to the Sunnibranch- believe that leadership should be in the hands of the Islamiccommunity at large

          • Most Berbershave adopted Islam, but some maintain indigenousreligions


    Culture1
    Culture

    • Islam

      • Calls to worshipoccur 5 times a day

        • A muezzin(crier) calls the faithfulto prayer from the minaret

        • Follow the movements of the imam(prayer leader)

          • They bowand kneel, touching their foreheads to the groundin the direction of the holy city of Meccain Saudi Arabia

      • Arabicis the main language in N Africa

        • Muslims learnedit to read the Quran (holy book)


    Culture2
    Culture

    • Education and Health Care

      • Most young people attend school

        • Primaryeducation is freeand enrollmentis increasing

      • Literacy rates vary widely from 52% in Morocco to 82% in Libya

      • Health Care has improvedin recent decades

        • People go to gov’towned hospitalsfor medical treatment

        • Doctor shortagesmean limitedcare for ruralpeople


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