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North Africa. Population Patterns. The People Coasts- influenced by European cultures Primary influence is a mix of indigenous and Arab cultures Indigenous people= Berbers Most are farmers , but many were nomadic

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population patterns
Population Patterns
  • The People
    • Coasts- influenced by Europeancultures
    • Primary influence is a mix of indigenousand Arabcultures
      • Indigenous people= Berbers
        • Most are farmers, but many were nomadic
          • People who movefrom place to place depending on the seasonand availability of grassfor grazing and water.
          • Most populousin the Atlas Mountains and Sahara Desert
population patterns1
Population Patterns
  • Arabs= people who speak Arabic
    • Nomadic Bedouinsmigrated to N Africa from the Mid East
    • Egyptwas the primary gateway for Arabs migratingto N Africa
      • Can be found herdinganimals in the desert where there is enough vegetationto support herdsor water for growing food
history and government
History and Government
  • N Africa’s proximityto Europeand the Mid Easthas made it vulnerable to invasions
  • Early Peoples and Civilizations
    • About 10,000 yrs ago, huntersand gathererssettled in N Africa
    • 6000 BC- farming communities rose along the Nileand Mediterranean
      • These farmers were among the first to domesticateplants and animals
        • Adapt them from wildfor uses as food, clothing, and transportation
history and government1
History and Government
  • Egyptian civilization developed about 6,000 yrs ago in Nile River Valley
    • Used sophisticated irrigationsystems to enable farmers to grow twocrops each year
    • Developed a calendarwith a 365-dayyear
    • Built impressive pyramidsas tombs for pharaohs
    • Invented a form of picture writing- hieroglyphics
history and government2
History and Government
  • Invasions
    • 7th century invasions of Arabsheavily influenced the culturesof N Africa
      • Berbers assimilatedwith Arab cultures in Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco- survived through the Ottomanrule (1922)
    • Muslim and Jewish exiles fleeing Christianpersecution in Spaininfused Moroccowith Spanish culture in the 1400s
history and government3
History and Government
  • European colonialrule also affected people and culturesin N Africa
    • French influenced Algeria
      • Geometric boundaries- lines that follow straightlines and do not account for naturaland culturalfeatures- separate Libya, Egypt, and Algeria
        • These were drawnby Europeans
        • Caused conflictbetween the new countries
          • Local practicesof gov’t were not the same as Europeanideas of governing
history and government4
History and Government
    • 1800s- well-educatedurban middleclass developed in N Africa
      • Adopted ideas of nationalism- belief in the right of an ethnicgroup to have its own independence
        • Stirred developments for self-rule
  • Independence
    • Egyptgained independence from UKin 1922
      • Suez Canal has made Egypt a key regional power
      • Also important center for Arabnationalism
history and government5
History and Government
  • Algeriagained independence from Francewhen a strong nationalistmovement led to a civil war in the mid 1900s
    • Since independence in 1962- Algeria has developed its resourcesand increased its standard of living
    • However, a civil war in the 1990skilled over 100,000 people
  • 1951- Libyawon independence from Italy
    • 1969- Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi overthrew the monarchy
  • 1956- Tunisiagained independence from France
  • 1956- Moroccowon independence from France
    • Constitutional monarchytoday
  • Religion and Language
    • When Arabsinvaded, they brought the religionof Islam
      • Most belong to the Sunnibranch- believe that leadership should be in the hands of the Islamiccommunity at large
        • Most Berbershave adopted Islam, but some maintain indigenousreligions
  • Islam
    • Calls to worshipoccur 5 times a day
      • A muezzin(crier) calls the faithfulto prayer from the minaret
      • Follow the movements of the imam(prayer leader)
        • They bowand kneel, touching their foreheads to the groundin the direction of the holy city of Meccain Saudi Arabia
    • Arabicis the main language in N Africa
      • Muslims learnedit to read the Quran (holy book)
  • Education and Health Care
    • Most young people attend school
      • Primaryeducation is freeand enrollmentis increasing
    • Literacy rates vary widely from 52% in Morocco to 82% in Libya
    • Health Care has improvedin recent decades
      • People go to gov’towned hospitalsfor medical treatment
      • Doctor shortagesmean limitedcare for ruralpeople