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Etiquette & Equity in Automated Aerospace Systems. Kevin M. Corker Human Automation Integration Laboratory (HAIL) San Jose State University 11/15/02. Acknowledgements. Sponsored by NASA Aviation Safety Program: Dr. Irving Statler technical monitor, FAA Office of ATM Architecture:

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etiquette equity in automated aerospace systems

Etiquette & Equity in Automated Aerospace Systems

Kevin M. Corker

Human Automation Integration Laboratory (HAIL)

San Jose State University

11/15/02

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Sponsored by
    • NASA Aviation Safety Program:
      • Dr. Irving Statler technical monitor,
    • FAA Office of ATM Architecture:
      • Mr. Steve Bradford, Chief Scientist, technical monitor
    • FAA Office of Chief Scientist for Human Factors,
      • Drs. Mark Rodgers and Dr. Paul Krois, technical monitors
slide3

Automation Issues

  • Impact
  • Introduction of automation changes the role of the operators in the system & increases target capability
  • Workload and sources for error are distributed not eliminated
  • Common Sources of Error in use of automation
    • Decision bias
    • Mistrust & Distrust lead Over & Under-reliance
    • Monitoring errors
    • System authority, autonomy, trust and agent’s role
  • How is automation used, rather then how was it designed to be used ?
  • Any number of accidents and incidents determined to be associated with automated systems’
    • Lack of feedback
    • Unidentified interrelations, side effects
    • Divergent priority and valuation processes
evolution of an etiquette argument
Evolution of an etiquette argument
  • Evolutionary Psychology: the development of a process of moralistic aggression whose purpose it is to educate individuals to the standards expected (Badcock, 2000)
    • Breaches in etiquette evoke a response that is disruptive, moralistic and (occasionally)aggressive
  • Social Psychology: Ability to monitor one’s own and others states of emotion and process to use that information to guide one’s thinking and actions (Salovey and Mayer, 1990)
  • Cognitive Psychology: Dedicated, functionally specialized interacting mechanisms (Cosmides and Tooby, 1992)
    • Guide behavior and thought w/to recurrent & adaptive problems posed by the social world
etiquette and automation
Etiquette and Automation
  • Human to Computer Courtesy: computer performance assessment experiments (Reeves & Nass, 1996)
  • Theory of mind: Cognitive entities experience mental states like our own (Premack & Woodruff, 1978)
  • Automated Autism: lack of awareness of mental & emotional embeddedness as symptomatic of autism: “mind-blind” (Baron-Cohen and Howlin, 1989)
  • Computer to Human Affect (Picard, 1997)
etiquette in aerospace
Etiquette In Aerospace
  • Theses:
    • One purpose for etiquette is to support secondary communication among interactive agents with reference to:
      • Conflict free access to scarce resources
      • Present process, goal state & priorities
    • In capacity constrained air traffic management, access to command & control processes is both necessary and limited
    • In automation aiding automation response dependence of system-operator state is essential
slide7

Joint Cognitive Systems Analysis

  • Apply cognitive engineering principles to the joint cognitive system
      • What role will the system provide the operator in nominal and off-nominal operation?
      • What behavioral data have we when the human is in that role?
      • What design augments or offsets that behavior?
  • What role will the system provide the automation in nominal and off-nominal operation?
  • What performance data have we when the automation is in that role?
  • What design augments or offsets that behavior?
slide8

Automation Analysis

  • High: Full Automation information selection analyses decision and implementation
    • Automation informs human/organization on the basis of rules
    • Executes actions automatically then informs human/organization
    • Allows human/organization override on a limited time schedule
  • Mid: Executes computer generated plan if human/organization approves
    • Automation provides best single alternative
    • Automation narrows the available field of alternatives
    • Automation provides a complete set of alternatives
  • Low: All information selection analyses decision and implementation performed by human/organization

Parasuraman, Sheridan, and Wickens, 2000

slide9

Flight Deck

ATC

Dimensions of Automation Impact on Aero-transport

Information Information Decision Action

Acquisition Analysis Selection Implementation

High

Low

slide11

5 Miles

2000 ft.

Separation Standard Required

automation aiding system
Automation Aiding System
  • Present Flight Data in Digital Form
  • Provide an “exploration” capability for alternative flight paths
  • Provide conflict prediction based on trajectory synthesis (20 min look ahead)
    • Current flight path as filed and radar track
    • Planned Flight Path
  • Flight Deck Aiding System (60-40 sec look ahead)
etiquette equity
Etiquette & Equity
  • Access can be decomposed into two elements
    • Internal Delay Costs: Cost incurred by user (x) in accessing and using a service
    • External Delay Costs: Cost incurred by all other users of that service as a function of user (x) occupancy of the resource
  • Strategy for Demand Management Cost Equity is to shift the external costs to internal costs
    • E.g. by the imposition of a “congestion fee” (Vickers, 1969, Daniel, 1995)
etiquette equity adapted from andreatta odoni 2002
Etiquette& Equity(adapted from Andreatta & Odoni, 2002)
  • Behaviors that support “courtesy” impose a cost to the operator that engages in them
    • Total Cost to user (Xi) = DC + CF
      • Where DC is the direct cost for access to the command and control system (attention, bandwidth, SA, etc.)
      • And CF is a courtesy fee which is the added cost to participate through the etiquette of operation
  • Intended Result:
    • - Distribution of external costs equitably (cooperative queue management)
pollaczek khintchine expression
Pollaczek-Khintchine Expression

Direct Cost

Access Fee Courtesy Cost

xi = ci Wqi (x) + {Sj=1 cjlj (xj)}dWq(xmean)/dli(xi) + Ki

etiquette and aerospace systems
Etiquette and Aerospace Systems
  • Current automated ATM systems do not support “etiquette functions” in human-human interaction
    • Communication is asynchronous, loop closure is delayed (e.g. digital data link)
    • Contract State Assurance is missing (“shot clock” and “flash & dash” procedures)
    • Queue Management Functions are missing
    • Mechanisms for mediation are “clumsy” (data link “stand-by” message)
    • Automation is blind to system-operator state
  • Hypothesized Result: Class of error & Response under load
etiquette based automation strategies
Etiquette-based Automation Strategies
  • Shared Cost for Access to Scarce Executive Function
  • State-sensitive Intervention Strategies
  • Interruptive Signaling and Adaptive Response
  • Automation and Human Goal States as Scheduling Mechanism
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