Etiquette equity in automated aerospace systems
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Etiquette & Equity in Automated Aerospace Systems. Kevin M. Corker Human Automation Integration Laboratory (HAIL) San Jose State University 11/15/02. Acknowledgements. Sponsored by NASA Aviation Safety Program: Dr. Irving Statler technical monitor, FAA Office of ATM Architecture:

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Etiquette & Equity in Automated Aerospace Systems

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Etiquette equity in automated aerospace systems

Etiquette & Equity in Automated Aerospace Systems

Kevin M. Corker

Human Automation Integration Laboratory (HAIL)

San Jose State University

11/15/02


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

  • Sponsored by

    • NASA Aviation Safety Program:

      • Dr. Irving Statler technical monitor,

    • FAA Office of ATM Architecture:

      • Mr. Steve Bradford, Chief Scientist, technical monitor

    • FAA Office of Chief Scientist for Human Factors,

      • Drs. Mark Rodgers and Dr. Paul Krois, technical monitors


Etiquette equity in automated aerospace systems

Automation Issues

  • Impact

  • Introduction of automation changes the role of the operators in the system & increases target capability

  • Workload and sources for error are distributed not eliminated

  • Common Sources of Error in use of automation

    • Decision bias

    • Mistrust & Distrust lead Over & Under-reliance

    • Monitoring errors

    • System authority, autonomy, trust and agent’s role

  • How is automation used, rather then how was it designed to be used ?

  • Any number of accidents and incidents determined to be associated with automated systems’

    • Lack of feedback

    • Unidentified interrelations, side effects

    • Divergent priority and valuation processes


Evolution of an etiquette argument

Evolution of an etiquette argument

  • Evolutionary Psychology: the development of a process of moralistic aggression whose purpose it is to educate individuals to the standards expected (Badcock, 2000)

    • Breaches in etiquette evoke a response that is disruptive, moralistic and (occasionally)aggressive

  • Social Psychology: Ability to monitor one’s own and others states of emotion and process to use that information to guide one’s thinking and actions (Salovey and Mayer, 1990)

  • Cognitive Psychology: Dedicated, functionally specialized interacting mechanisms (Cosmides and Tooby, 1992)

    • Guide behavior and thought w/to recurrent & adaptive problems posed by the social world


Etiquette and automation

Etiquette and Automation

  • Human to Computer Courtesy: computer performance assessment experiments (Reeves & Nass, 1996)

  • Theory of mind: Cognitive entities experience mental states like our own (Premack & Woodruff, 1978)

  • Automated Autism: lack of awareness of mental & emotional embeddedness as symptomatic of autism: “mind-blind” (Baron-Cohen and Howlin, 1989)

  • Computer to Human Affect (Picard, 1997)


Etiquette in aerospace

Etiquette In Aerospace

  • Theses:

    • One purpose for etiquette is to support secondary communication among interactive agents with reference to:

      • Conflict free access to scarce resources

      • Present process, goal state & priorities

    • In capacity constrained air traffic management, access to command & control processes is both necessary and limited

    • In automation aiding automation response dependence of system-operator state is essential


Etiquette equity in automated aerospace systems

Joint Cognitive Systems Analysis

  • Apply cognitive engineering principles to the joint cognitive system

    • What role will the system provide the operator in nominal and off-nominal operation?

    • What behavioral data have we when the human is in that role?

    • What design augments or offsets that behavior?

  • What role will the system provide the automation in nominal and off-nominal operation?

  • What performance data have we when the automation is in that role?

  • What design augments or offsets that behavior?


Etiquette equity in automated aerospace systems

Automation Analysis

  • High: Full Automation information selection analyses decision and implementation

    • Automation informs human/organization on the basis of rules

    • Executes actions automatically then informs human/organization

    • Allows human/organization override on a limited time schedule

  • Mid: Executes computer generated plan if human/organization approves

    • Automation provides best single alternative

    • Automation narrows the available field of alternatives

    • Automation provides a complete set of alternatives

  • Low: All information selection analyses decision and implementation performed by human/organization

Parasuraman, Sheridan, and Wickens, 2000


Etiquette equity in automated aerospace systems

Flight Deck

ATC

Dimensions of Automation Impact on Aero-transport

Information Information Decision Action

AcquisitionAnalysisSelectionImplementation

High

Low


Etiquette equity in automated aerospace systems

Automated Flight Deck Response to Off Nominal Conditions

Weiner, 1985


Etiquette equity in automated aerospace systems

5 Miles

2000 ft.

Separation Standard Required


Etiquette equity in automated aerospace systems

Data Link Vs. Voice Error % in Standard and Missed Communication

Lozito et al., 1999


Etiquette equity in automated aerospace systems

Data vs. VoiceCommunication Time In Clarification

Lozito et al., 1999


Automation aiding system

Automation Aiding System

  • Present Flight Data in Digital Form

  • Provide an “exploration” capability for alternative flight paths

  • Provide conflict prediction based on trajectory synthesis (20 min look ahead)

    • Current flight path as filed and radar track

    • Planned Flight Path

  • Flight Deck Aiding System (60-40 sec look ahead)


Etiquette equity

Etiquette & Equity

  • Access can be decomposed into two elements

    • Internal Delay Costs: Cost incurred by user (x) in accessing and using a service

    • External Delay Costs: Cost incurred by all other users of that service as a function of user (x) occupancy of the resource

  • Strategy for Demand Management Cost Equity is to shift the external costs to internal costs

    • E.g. by the imposition of a “congestion fee” (Vickers, 1969, Daniel, 1995)


Etiquette equity adapted from andreatta odoni 2002

Etiquette& Equity(adapted from Andreatta & Odoni, 2002)

  • Behaviors that support “courtesy” impose a cost to the operator that engages in them

    • Total Cost to user (Xi) = DC + CF

      • Where DC is the direct cost for access to the command and control system (attention, bandwidth, SA, etc.)

      • And CF is a courtesy fee which is the added cost to participate through the etiquette of operation

  • Intended Result:

    • - Distribution of external costs equitably (cooperative queue management)


Pollaczek khintchine expression

Pollaczek-Khintchine Expression

Direct Cost

Access Fee Courtesy Cost

xi = ci Wqi (x) + {Sj=1 cjlj (xj)}dWq(xmean)/dli(xi) + Ki


Etiquette equity in automated aerospace systems

Error Reduction Correlated to Number of Communication Types

Mjos, 2001


Etiquette and aerospace systems

Etiquette and Aerospace Systems

  • Current automated ATM systems do not support “etiquette functions” in human-human interaction

    • Communication is asynchronous, loop closure is delayed (e.g. digital data link)

    • Contract State Assurance is missing (“shot clock” and “flash & dash” procedures)

    • Queue Management Functions are missing

    • Mechanisms for mediation are “clumsy” (data link “stand-by” message)

    • Automation is blind to system-operator state

  • Hypothesized Result: Class of error & Response under load


Etiquette based automation strategies

Etiquette-based Automation Strategies

  • Shared Cost for Access to Scarce Executive Function

  • State-sensitive Intervention Strategies

  • Interruptive Signaling and Adaptive Response

  • Automation and Human Goal States as Scheduling Mechanism


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