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Food Labels I. Objective: Identify ingredients that contribute calories of different types of carbohydrates, different lipids, and protein. I. Common Carbs. Simple sugars: Monosaccharides fructose glucose galactose Disaccharides sucrose lactose maltose Other Carb: Starch

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Food labels i
Food Labels I

  • Objective:

    Identify ingredients that contribute calories of different types of carbohydrates, different lipids, and protein.


I common carbs
I. Common Carbs

  • Simple sugars:

    • Monosaccharides

      • fructose

      • glucose

      • galactose

    • Disaccharides

      • sucrose

      • lactose

      • maltose

  • Other Carb: Starch

  • Dietary Fiber: Cellulose


Rules to recognize carbohydrates plants
Rules to Recognize Carbohydrates: Plants

  • Simple sugars:

    • Obvious names [Fructose, Sucrose (table sugar), lactose], corn syrup (enzymatic breakdown of corn starch), high-fructose corn syrup (undergone further enzymatic processing to convert glucose into fructose).

    • Rule: -ose as an ending, sweet

  • Other Carb: Starch

    • Rule: long-term energy storage for plants (roots, seeds), digested by hydrolysis in germinating seeds to provide glucose energy

  • Dietary Fiber: Cellulose

    • Rule: structural component of cell walls of plants


Digestion of carbohydrates
Digestion of Carbohydrates

  • Any carbohydrate bigger than monosaccharides too big to cross into the blood stream

  • Hydrolysis enzymes are located in mouth, and small intestine.

  • One enzyme (proteins) for each disaccharide.

    • Enzyme amylase

  • Starch glucose

    • Enzyme sucrase

  • Sucrose glucose + fructose

    • Enzyme lactase

  • Lactose glucose + galactose

Lactase


Clicker Question 1

Which of the following contains mostly carbohydrates that are monosaccharides?

  • Nonfat dry milk

  • Sugar

  • Fructose

  • Powered cellulose

  • Modified corn starch


Clicker Question 2

Which of the following does NOT contain complex carbohydrate?

  • Nonfat dry milk

  • Corn bran

  • Soy fiber

  • Modified corn starch

  • Powdered cellulose


Polysaccharides complex
Polysaccharides (Complex)

  • Starch

  • Glycogen

  • Cellulose


Digestion of cellulose
Digestion of Cellulose

  • Glucose linked differently in starch and cellulose

    Starch:

    Cellulose:

  • Cellulose (fiber) calorie free because is we do not make digestive enzymes that can recognize the bonds.


Clicker Question 3

Which of the following provides no calories because it is indigestible to humans?

  • Nonfat dry milk

  • Sugar

  • Fructose

  • Spinach

  • Modified corn starch


Health and carbohydrates
Health and Carbohydrates

  • We need about 150g a day to live.

  • We exhaust supplies of glycogen in about 12 hours.(Good thing for FAT!)

  • Dietary Guidelines: 50-55% total Calories come from carbs.

  • Majority should be complex, not simple sugars

    • Currently 40-50% are from sugars

    • Sugars lack fiber and vitamins



Clicker Question 4

  • Which of the following ingredients contributes fat to the Klondike bar?

    • Non-fat milk

    • Milkfat

    • Vegetable oils

    • Sugar

    • Cellulose gum


Ii two major lipids in food
II. Two Major Lipids in food

  • Triglycerides (fats and oils)

  • Cholesterol

    Phospholipids are found in all cell membranes, but not listed on food label.


1 triglycerides
1. Triglycerides

glycerol

3 fatty acids


Differences between fatty acids

OILS

Liquid at room temperature

Enriched in plant sources like seeds

Unsaturated

Differences Between Fatty Acids

FATS

Solid at room temperature

Enriched in animal sources +coco & palm

Saturated in hydrogens


Unsaturated fatty acids
Unsaturated Fatty acids

  • Monounsaturated: one C=C olive, canola, nut oils

  • Polyunsaturated: more than one C=C, corn safflower, soy oils

  • Hydrogenated: oils made solid by breaking C=C bonds and replacing with H (Hydrogenation) Partially hydrogenated – margarine. Converts Cis to Trans fats


Fats oils diet
Fats/Oils & Diet

  • Fat is the most concentrated energy source.

  • Absorption of fat soluble vitamins.

  • Flavor and satiety.

  • Essential fatty acids (linoleic, polyunsaturated) required, not made by our bodies. Absence leads to problems with blood clotting, hormone synthesis and muscle function.

  • RDA: 25-35% Calories from fats and oils

  • 10% is too little

  • 40-50% found in average American diet, much of it saturated fats with associated cholesterol.


Clicker Question 6

  • Which of the following ingredients contributes saturated fat to the Klondike bar?

    • Milkfat

    • Vegetable oils

    • Sugar

    • Cellulose gum


2 steroids
2. Steroids

  • Four fused rings of carbon

  • steroid hormones: estrogen, testosterone

  • cholesterol: vital component of animal cell membranes, starting material for steroid hormone synthesis

testosterone

cholesterol

progesterone


Cholesterol in blood is packaged with protein
Cholesterol in blood is packaged with protein

1. Bad: LDL (low density lipoprotein) carrying cholesterol to cells, <130

2. Good: HDL (high density lipoprotein) carrying cholesterol to liver for elimination. >50

Overall cholesterol <200


Clicker Question 8

  • Which of the following ingredients contributes cholesterol?

    • Peanut butter

    • Vegetable oil

    • Beef

    • French fries (fried in corn oil)


Iii proteins in food
III. Proteins in food

  • 20 different amino acids

  • We can manufacture most.

  • 8 Essential Amino Acids can’t be synthesized by our bodies, but must be found in diet.

  • Rule: All living organisms have protein, but all 8 essential amino acids are present in animal protein (meat, eggs, milk), vegetable protein may lack some.


Clicker Question 9

McDonald’s French fries contain 3g of protein. Which of the following ingredients would contribute calories from protein?

  • Potatoes

  • Vegetable oil

  • Dextrose

  • Salt

  • Hydrogenated soybean oil


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