Food labels i
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Food Labels I. Objective: Identify ingredients that contribute calories of different types of carbohydrates, different lipids, and protein. I. Common Carbs. Simple sugars: Monosaccharides fructose glucose galactose Disaccharides sucrose lactose maltose Other Carb: Starch

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Food Labels I

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Food Labels I

  • Objective:

    Identify ingredients that contribute calories of different types of carbohydrates, different lipids, and protein.


I. Common Carbs

  • Simple sugars:

    • Monosaccharides

      • fructose

      • glucose

      • galactose

    • Disaccharides

      • sucrose

      • lactose

      • maltose

  • Other Carb: Starch

  • Dietary Fiber: Cellulose


Rules to Recognize Carbohydrates: Plants

  • Simple sugars:

    • Obvious names [Fructose, Sucrose (table sugar), lactose], corn syrup (enzymatic breakdown of corn starch), high-fructose corn syrup (undergone further enzymatic processing to convert glucose into fructose).

    • Rule: -ose as an ending, sweet

  • Other Carb: Starch

    • Rule: long-term energy storage for plants (roots, seeds), digested by hydrolysis in germinating seeds to provide glucose energy

  • Dietary Fiber: Cellulose

    • Rule: structural component of cell walls of plants


Digestion of Carbohydrates

  • Any carbohydrate bigger than monosaccharides too big to cross into the blood stream

  • Hydrolysis enzymes are located in mouth, and small intestine.

  • One enzyme (proteins) for each disaccharide.

    • Enzyme amylase

  • Starchglucose

    • Enzyme sucrase

  • Sucrose glucose + fructose

    • Enzyme lactase

  • Lactoseglucose + galactose

Lactase


Clicker Question 1

Which of the following contains mostly carbohydrates that are monosaccharides?

  • Nonfat dry milk

  • Sugar

  • Fructose

  • Powered cellulose

  • Modified corn starch


Clicker Question 2

Which of the following does NOT contain complex carbohydrate?

  • Nonfat dry milk

  • Corn bran

  • Soy fiber

  • Modified corn starch

  • Powdered cellulose


Polysaccharides (Complex)

  • Starch

  • Glycogen

  • Cellulose


Digestion of Cellulose

  • Glucose linked differently in starch and cellulose

    Starch:

    Cellulose:

  • Cellulose (fiber) calorie free because is we do not make digestive enzymes that can recognize the bonds.


Clicker Question 3

Which of the following provides no calories because it is indigestible to humans?

  • Nonfat dry milk

  • Sugar

  • Fructose

  • Spinach

  • Modified corn starch


Health and Carbohydrates

  • We need about 150g a day to live.

  • We exhaust supplies of glycogen in about 12 hours.(Good thing for FAT!)

  • Dietary Guidelines: 50-55% total Calories come from carbs.

  • Majority should be complex, not simple sugars

    • Currently 40-50% are from sugars

    • Sugars lack fiber and vitamins


KLONDIKE


Clicker Question 4

  • Which of the following ingredients contributes fat to the Klondike bar?

    • Non-fat milk

    • Milkfat

    • Vegetable oils

    • Sugar

    • Cellulose gum


II. Two Major Lipids in food

  • Triglycerides (fats and oils)

  • Cholesterol

    Phospholipids are found in all cell membranes, but not listed on food label.


1. Triglycerides

glycerol

3 fatty acids


OILS

Liquid at room temperature

Enriched in plant sources like seeds

Unsaturated

Differences Between Fatty Acids

FATS

Solid at room temperature

Enriched in animal sources +coco & palm

Saturated in hydrogens


Unsaturated Fatty acids

  • Monounsaturated: one C=C olive, canola, nut oils

  • Polyunsaturated: more than one C=C, corn safflower, soy oils

  • Hydrogenated: oils made solid by breaking C=C bonds and replacing with H (Hydrogenation) Partially hydrogenated – margarine. Converts CistoTrans fats


Fats/Oils & Diet

  • Fat is the most concentrated energy source.

  • Absorption of fat soluble vitamins.

  • Flavor and satiety.

  • Essential fatty acids (linoleic, polyunsaturated) required, not made by our bodies. Absence leads to problems with blood clotting, hormone synthesis and muscle function.

  • RDA: 25-35% Calories from fats and oils

  • 10% is too little

  • 40-50% found in average American diet, much of it saturated fats with associated cholesterol.


Clicker Question 6

  • Which of the following ingredients contributes saturated fat to the Klondike bar?

    • Milkfat

    • Vegetable oils

    • Sugar

    • Cellulose gum


2. Steroids

  • Four fused rings of carbon

  • steroid hormones: estrogen, testosterone

  • cholesterol: vital component of animal cell membranes, starting material for steroid hormone synthesis

testosterone

cholesterol

progesterone


Cholesterol in blood is packaged with protein

1. Bad: LDL (low density lipoprotein) carrying cholesterol to cells, <130

2. Good: HDL (high density lipoprotein) carrying cholesterol to liver for elimination. >50

Overall cholesterol <200


Clicker Question 8

  • Which of the following ingredients contributes cholesterol?

    • Peanut butter

    • Vegetable oil

    • Beef

    • French fries (fried in corn oil)


III. Proteins in food

  • 20 different amino acids

  • We can manufacture most.

  • 8 Essential Amino Acids can’t be synthesized by our bodies, but must be found in diet.

  • Rule: All living organisms have protein, but all 8 essential amino acids are present in animal protein (meat, eggs, milk), vegetable protein may lack some.


Clicker Question 9

McDonald’s French fries contain 3g of protein. Which of the following ingredients would contribute calories from protein?

  • Potatoes

  • Vegetable oil

  • Dextrose

  • Salt

  • Hydrogenated soybean oil


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