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http://www.opensecrets.org/pres08/index.php. Campaign Structure. Running For President. Campaign Finance . Mo Money, Mo Money, Mo Money. Campaign Finance Reform. What is “campaign finance” rules? Do campaign Finance rules protect or inhibit democracy?.

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Campaign finance

Campaign Finance

Mo Money, Mo Money, Mo Money


Campaign finance reform
Campaign Finance Reform

What is “campaign finance” rules?

Do campaign Finance rules protect or inhibit democracy?


Overview history of campaign finance regulation
Overview History of Campaign Finance Regulation

  • Beginning of time—Civil War: No regulation

  • Civil War—1910

    • Gilded Age

      • Exceptionally scandalous politicians nationally

        • Boss Tweed

    • 1868: 75% of money used in congressional elections through party assessments

    • 1883: Civil Service Reform Act (Pendleton Act) prohibits the same solicitation of all federal workers

      • Prohibits elected officials and employees of the fed. gov’t from soliciting contributions

      • Hatch Act … participating in engaging in partisan political activity

        www.mit.edu/~17.251/finance.ppt


Overview history of campaign finance regulation1
Overview History of Campaign Finance Regulation

  • Watergate

  • FECA FEC

  • Soft $ vs. Hard $ Restrictions

  • PACs

  • Buckley v. Valeo

  • (A) the option of taxpayers to contribute a dollar to presidential campaigns on their income tax forms. (B) the restriction of citizen contributions per candidate. (C) the regulation of PAC contributions to candidates. (D) the restriction of spending amounts by candidates who decided not to accept matching funds. (E) the creation of the Federal Election Commission.



General rules from fec act
General Rules from FEC Act

  • There is no limit to the amount of money that a candidate can spend on a campaign, but limits placed on donations made to a candidate’s campaign are constitutional (Buckley v. Valeo)

  • Corporations & labor unions are not permitted to make contributions to candidates

  • Hard Money contributions are those that have strict legal limits. Soft Money contributions are those that are unregulated and do not have limits.

  • Contributions made to candidates and PACs have strict limits. Contributions made to political parties are now also limited.


Individual Contributor

Candidate “A”

Individual Contributor

$

Individual Contributor

$

Candidate “B”

$

Individual Contributor

$

$

PAC

State Party Committee

Individual Contributor

$

Individual Contributor

$

National Party Committee

$

$

Individual Contributor

Individual Contributor

TV & Radio Ads

Individual Contributor

Individuals can contribute a maximum of $5,000 to a PAC per year


Soft money problem
Soft Money Problem

  • Accounted for 35% of all $ raised by Rep.

  • Accounted for 47 % of all $ raised by Dem

  • Together = ½ billion dollars

  • Which Party relies the most on soft money?

  • BCRA?



  • How much money can an individual donate to a candidate committee per election?

  • How much money can a PAC donate to a candidate committee per election?

  • How much money can a National Party Committee donate to a candidate committee per election?

  • How much money can an individual give to a Political Action Committee (PAC) each year?

  • How much money can an individual give to a National Party Committee each year?

  • Why do you think there are limits on campaign donations?

http://www.fec.gov/pages/brochures/contriblimits.shtml


Loopholes
Loopholes committee per election?

“Independent Expenditures”

  • Define:

  • Candidate involvement?

  • Disclosure?

  • BCRA Reforms on Broadcasting?

  • Birth of 527 (open secrets)

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K9GVwZ9N650

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EQobIUE1zTU

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A9WKimKIyUQ

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6HXEQD542O4


2012 super pac
2012 Super PAC committee per election?

  • RINO Romney

  • History Lesson

  • News Report


Special interest groups
Special Interest Groups committee per election?

Against

  • NRCC, Emily’s List, AFL-CIO, NRA, NAACP

  • Hamper Voter Mobilization efforts of “non-profits/Non-partisans”

  • Regulation of speech beyond FEC jurisdiction

  • Fear FEC ruling on “case-by-case” basis

  • Rules favor Large Broadcasting Comp.

  • Limit Free speech

For

  • Common Cause

  • Fear PP funnel $ into groups.

  • Force PP and Candidates to broaden base = broaden participation


Unintended and intended effects of reform 1974 2002
Unintended and Intended Effects of Reform (1974 & 2002) committee per election?

Intended effects???

  • get fundraising out in the open

  • minimize wealthy special interest groups

  • encourage fundraising from broader base of small contributors


Unintended effects
Unintended Effects committee per election?

1. Effect on PAC’s and 527?


2. Power of the Party??? committee per election?

  • Takes funding campaigns away from party and into private sector

Disadv. To Challenger?

  • complex rules and regulations

  • winning campaigns need at least a ½ million

  • Harder to catch up with opponents “War chest”


4. Timing of a Campaign committee per election??

  • Penalize late starters

  • Incumbents


Pacs do they promote democracy or inhibit
PACs committee per election?: Do they promote democracy or inhibit?


Pacs do they promote democracy or inhibit1

Diversity and PACs committee per election?

Direct mail and labor Unions non-dem.

Pres vs. Cong PACs

“golden campaign list”

“in-kind gifts”

Independent spending

Vote Buying?

Madison and Factions

PACs: Do they promote democracy or inhibit?


Does buy votes or just access
Does $ Buy Votes or Just Access? committee per election?

  • $ and “in-kind” gifts = access

  • Dairy PACs and votes for Higher Prices

  • 5,000$ or 5,000 votes

  • Multiple factors influence a vote


Money and winning
Money and Winning committee per election?

What decides Elections

  • Congressional

    • Money- Incumbent factor

  • General Election for President

    • Less money, more:

      • Party Identification

      • Issues (Economy)

      • Campaigns


3 factors in winning an election
3 Factors in Winning an Election committee per election?

1. Party

  • 80% of voters Identify w/ 2 Major Parties

  • Election hangs on “Swing Voter”

  • “If more people identify with the Democratic party than the Republican party, why have Republicans won more recent presidential elections?”

  • Republican Party Stronger

    • 1968-2004 won 7/10

    • More loyal: 72’ and 84

    • Win Independent Vote (except 92, 96)

    • Vote More: 2004


2 issues
2. Issues committee per election?

  • Voter Education not required

    • Prospective Voting

      • Informative

      • Time Consuming

      • Single Issue concerns

      • Activist

      • Rep a Minority – yet still influential (special Interest groups)


Issues
Issues committee per election?

  • Retrospective

    • Comparing Past to Present

    • Have things gotten better or worse (Kerry, Reagan)

    • Decide Elections

      • 1980, (82) 84, 88, 92, (2008?)

    • Congressional Incumbents


3 campaign
3. Campaign committee per election?

  • Influence voters in 3 ways

    • Reawaken Party Loyalty

    • Visible under pressure

      • Negative ads: 88 Bush v Dukakis

      • Successful and leads to spot ads

    • Character Judgment

      • Voters focus on Themes and Tone

        • Judge Character

        • Increase in TV Spots

      • Valance Issues and details


Finding a winning coalition
Finding a Winning Coalition committee per election?

  • Holding base, attracting swing voters

  • Who supports (loyalty) and to what extent (importance)?

  • Dem:

    • Af. Am, Jewish,

    • Hispanics: Sleeping Giant(Mex. Am & P.R vs. Cuban)

    • Catholics, Southern, Unions (less loyal)

  • Rep:

    • Business/Prof/Christian Right most loyal

    • Farmers/poor


Readings
Readings committee per election?

  • Student Worksheet 1: MO Money…

    • “Campaign Finance Reform. What’s the Issue”

    • “Soft Money ain’t want it used to be”

    • Questions and answers -chart

  • Student Worksheet 2

    • Liberals split on shaping of Campaign Finance Rules

    • NRA files suit

    • Common Cause

  • Activity Debate

    • After discussion on Campaign Finance Reform (reading and discussing articles and viewing pp

    • HW: Using all resources (articles, chart, notes) prepare for a classroom debate on Campaign Finance Reform

    • Organize and frame logical, compelling, well reasoned arguments for both sides of the issue


Money spent
Money Spent committee per election?


BACK committee per election?


  • Activity Debate committee per election?

    • HW: Using all resources (articles, chart, notes) prepare for a classroom debate on Campaign Finance Reform.

    • Organize and frame logical, compelling, well reasoned arguments for both sides of the issue.

    • Issue: Campaign Finance Reform: Does it protect or inhibit democracy?

    • Position A:

    • ?

    • ?

    • ?

    • Position B:

    • ?

    • ?

    • ?


Debate
Debate committee per election?

  • Students Pair up

  • I will give you a prompt question

  • Both sides will get 1 min to collect thoughts

  • First person will defend for 30-45 sec

  • Second person will repeat what was said…

    “I heard you say…”

  • Second person had 30-45 sec defend opposite side

  • Opponent will repeat what was said

    “I heard you say…”

    A second prompt will be given.

  • Switch turns and positions.


Prompt 1
Prompt #1 committee per election?

  • Elections should be publicly financed

    • Red-yes

    • Black- no


Prompt 2
Prompt #2 committee per election?

  • Campaign finance reform has been successful in redistributing political influence.

    • Black yes

    • Red no


Prompt 3
Prompt #3 committee per election?

  • Political Action Committees negatively influence elections and votes in Congress

  • Red- agree

  • Black – disagree


Prompt 4
Prompt #4 committee per election?

  • BCRA and campaign financing laws undermines the existence of Ideological groups (special interest) and weakens their influence

    • Black yes

    • Red no


Consensus extension
Consensus & Extension committee per election?

Campaign Finance Reform: Does it protect or inhibit democracy?

  • Work together to integrate the most powerful arguments from both positions

  • Meld them into a position both can agree on

  • Extension

  • Finish the sentence:

    • Wouldn’t it be interesting if…


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