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How to write a scientific article. Constantinos (Dinos) Mylonas Hellenic Center for Marine Research Institute of Aquaculture Crete, Greece. Components. Title page Introduction Materials and methods Results Discussion References (Tables and Figures embedded in text). Structure - Report.

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How to write a scientific article

How to write a scientific article

Constantinos (Dinos) Mylonas

Hellenic Center for Marine Research

Institute of Aquaculture

Crete, Greece



Structure report

Title page

Introduction

Materials and methods

Results

Discussion

References

(Tables and Figures embedded in text)

Structure - Report


Structure thesis

Title page

Acknowledgements

Summary

Table of contents

List of Figures (optional)

General Introduction

Chapter 1-n

Introduction

Materials and methods

Results

Discussion

(Tables and Figures embedded in text)

General Discussion

References

Structure - Thesis


Table of contents
Table of Contents

  • Can be done automatically!





Structure article

Title page

Abstract

Introduction

Materials and methods

Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

References

Tables

List of Figures

Figures

Structure - Article


Format

Margins

Left, right, top, bottom

Spacing

Single or double space

Line numbering

Font type and size

Base type (Arial vs Times)

Levels of organization

Not more than three

1. Introduction

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Experimental animals

2.2. Experimental design

2.2.1. Effect of season on reproduction

Paragraphs

With or without indentation, separated by a double space, etc.

Format



Format1

Spacing

Single or double space

Font type and size

(Arial vs Times)

Format


Structure article1

Title page (1 page)

Abstract

Introduction

Materials and methods

Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

References

Tables

Figures legends

Figures

Structure - Article


Structure article2

Title page (1 page)

Abstract (1 page)

Introduction

Materials and methods

Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

References

Tables

Figures legends

Figures

Structure - Article


Structure article3

Title page (1 page)

Abstract (1 page)

Introduction (2-3 pages)

Materials and methods

Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

References

Tables

Figures legends

Figures

Structure - Article

- Presentation of the problem

- Current knowledge or situation

- Relevant knowledge from other species

- Objectives of the study


Structure article4

Title page (1 page)

Abstract (1 page)

Introduction (2-3 pages)

Materials and methods (1-n pages)

Results

Discussion

Acknowledgements

References

Tables

Figures legends

Figures

Structure - Article

  • Objectives

  • Understand the study

  • Evaluate the results

  • Repeat if required

  • Content

  • - Experimental animals or site

  • Experimental design

  • Data collection

  • - Analytical methods (hormone assays, molecular methods, measurements, etc.

  • - Statistical analysis


Structure article5

Title page (1 page)

Abstract (1 page)

Introduction (2-3 pages)

Materials and methods (1-n pages)

Results (1-n pages)

Discussion

Acknowledgements

References

Tables

Figures legends

Figures

Structure - Article

  • Presentation of results in a historical order

  • Reference to Tables and Figures

  • Absolutely NO discussion (no opinions or conclusions)


Structure article6

Title page (1 page)

Abstract (1 page)

Introduction (2-3 pages)

Materials and methods (1-n pages)

Results (1-n pages)

Discussion (3-n pages)

Acknowledgements

References

Tables

Figures legends

Figures

Structure - Article

  • Interpretation of results

  • Comparison with other studies

  • Avoid referring to Tables and Figures

  • Significance of the study, contribution to the field

  • Suggestions for further work

  • Conclusions

  • NO mentioning of results (numbers), except for comparison purposes


Structure article7

Title page (1 page)

Abstract (1 page)

Introduction (2-3 pages)

Materials and methods (1-n pages)

Results (1-n pages)

Discussion (3-n pages)

Acknowledgements (1 paragraph)

References

Tables

Figures legends

Figures

Structure - Article

  • Funding agencies and organizations

  • Technicians and collaborators who worked on the study

  • Scientist giving advice on study or reviewed the manuscript

  • - Reviewers that improved the manuscript

  • NOT your parents or girlfriend/boyfriend


Structure article8

Title page (1 page)

Abstract (1 page)

Introduction (2-3 pages)

Materials and methods (1-n pages)

Results (1-n pages)

Discussion (3-n pages)

Acknowledgements (1 paragraph)

References (1-n pages, ~50 citations)

Tables

Figures legends

Figures

Structure - Article

  • Provide proof of knowledge of the field

  • Suggest studies to interested readers

  • Reviews to avoid many original articles

  • Original articles to demonstrate knowledge of the field

- Journals, Books, Chapters, Conferences, Thesis, Reports

- Every journal has its own style ! (alphabetical, numerical)





Structure article9

Title page (1 page)

Abstract (1 page)

Introduction (2-3 pages)

Materials and methods (1-n pages)

Results (1-n pages)

Discussion (3-n pages)

Acknowledgements (1 paragraph)

References (1-n pages, ~50 citations)

Tables (0-7?)

Figures legends

Figures

Structure - Article

  • Each Table in a separate page

  • Self-explanatory (no reference to main text)


Structure article10

Title page (1 page)

Abstract (1 page)

Introduction (2-3 pages)

Materials and methods (1-n pages)

Results (1-n pages)

Discussion (3-n pages)

Acknowledgements (1 paragraph)

References (1-n pages, ~50 citations)

Tables (0-7?)

Figure legends (0-n)

Figures

Structure - Article

  • Separate Word file or at the end of the main text

  • NOT next to the Figure

  • Self-explanatory (no reference to main text)


Structure article11

Title page (1 page)

Abstract (1 page)

Introduction (2-3 pages)

Materials and methods (1-n pages)

Results (1-n pages)

Discussion (3-n pages)

Acknowledgements (1 paragraph)

References (1-n pages, ~50 citations)

Tables (0-7?)

Figure legends (0-n)

Figures (0-7?)

Structure - Article

  • Each Figure in a separate page, preferably in TIFF or JPEG format

  • For review also possible as MS PPT (one Figure per slide)

  • NO titles (legends)


Language

Write in past tense for the results of an experiment or of another study. Use present tense for well-accepted theories or facts.

For example:

(Past) The study indicated that fish spawned well in captivity.

(Present) It is known that most temperate zone fishes spawn once a year in nature

Language


Language1

Write in passive voice and not in the first person.

For example:

(Yes) Blood samples were collected and analyzed using ELISA.

(No) We collected blood samples and analyzed them using ELISA.

Language


Language2

Avoid using author names out of parentheses. These are better placed in parentheses, unless there is really a need to emphasize the name of the author.

For example:

(Yes) The gilthead seabream reproduces annually for a period of 3-5 months (Zohar et al., 1995).

(No) Zohar and coworkers (1995) demonstrated that the gilthead seabream reproduces annually for a period of 3-5 months.

(Yes) Contrary to what has been know until now (Johnson et al., 1990; Stevens & Brown, 1991; Holland et al, 1993), Zohar and coworkers suggested recently that not all stocks of gilthead seabream reproduce annually for a period of 3-5 months.

Language


Language3

Never start a sentence with an abbreviation or an Arabic number. Spell them out.

For example:

(Yes) Luteinizing hormone is the main gonadotrophin in mammals, controlling gametogenesis.

(No) GnRH is the main brain hormone in mammals, controlling reproduction.

(Yes) Twenty-fine percent of the population in Greece own a second house.

(No) 15 fish were sampled at each monthly sampling.

Language


Language4

Spell out numbers from one to nine if they are not followed by units, and use Arabic numbers for those above 10.

For example:

(Yes) In the present study 9 fish were used in each of the five therapies used for the study.

(Yes) The experiments were repeated at 12 different times during the period of 3 years.

Language


Language5

Always spell out abbreviations at the first time cited in the Title, Abstract and main text of the manuscript. First the full name and then the abbreviation, never the other way around.

For example:

(Yes) Giving an exogenous dose of testosterone (T) is considered a reasonable method for increasing maleness.

(No) In the blood, E2 (17b-estradiol) can be elevated during the reproductive season.

Language


Language6

After parentheses a comma is placed only if it would be necessary without the parenthesis.

For example:

(Yes, with comma) Even though reports exist to support the existence of GnRHa in marine fishes (Jonhson et al., 2007), this has not been demonstrated in all fish studied to date.

(Yes, without comma) The study of reproductive functions in marine fishes (Brown et al., 2006) has led to the discovery of multiple forms of GnRHa in the brain.

Language


Language7

In a list of terms, the last one is connected with "and" with or without a comma. Be consisted in the use or not of the comma.

For example:

(Yes) It has been found that fish have three steroids in their plasma during reproduction: testosterone, estradiol(,) and dihydroxyprogesterone.

(No) It has been found that fish have three steroids in their plasma during reproduction: testosterone, estradiol, dihydroxyprogesterone.

Language


Language8

Citation to a figure, table or another study should be done at the end of the sentence, unless this citation refers to only part of the sentence.

For example:

(Yes) It has been found in both marine and freshwater fish that plasma testosterone increases after a meal and this increase is correlated to increased swimming activity (Stevens, 1978).

(No) It has been found in both marine and freshwater fish that plasma testosterone increases after a meal (Stevens, 1978) and this increase is correlated to increased swimming activity.

(Yes) It has been found in both marine and freshwater fish that plasma testosterone increases after a meal (Fig. 2) and this increase is correlated to increased swimming activity (Manabu et al., 2008).

Language


Language9

"Which" can be used for the same objective as "that". However, "which" is more formal and much stronger and it must be preceded by a comma.

For example:

(Yes) Fish did not respond to the treatment, which means that they were not mature yet.

(Yes) Fish did not accept the second type of food that was prepared with marine oils.

(No) All treated individuals were larger than the controls which means that the added nutrients were important in accelerating growth.

Language


Language10

Do not start a sentence with "This", That", "They" etc., unless it is very clear to what this term refers. Restate clearly if there is a doubt.

For example:

(Yes). From the different species studied, the African elephant is the only one that builds a nest for reproduction. This is usually made at the top of a tree, using feather and grass.

(No) From the five species of birds found in the Aegean islands, the two found in Crete feed exclusively on marine fish while the other three consume also fruits. These include mariets, alpikas and bassols.

(Yes) From the five species of birds found in the Aegean islands, the two found in Crete feed exclusively on marine fish while the other three consume also fruits. These fish include mariets, alpikas and bassols.

Language


Language11

The unless it is very clear to what this term refers. Restate clearly if there is a doubtplural of fish is fish. Fishes indicates many fish species.

For example:

Each treatment consisted of 12 fish.

Each experiment considered at least three fishes from a total of 25 species available in the region.

Same holds for “people vs peoples”, “bread vs breads”, “money vs moneys”

The common names of animals are always written in small letters, with the exception of main names such as Atlantic, Japanese, Pacific, Australian, etc.

Language


Language12

A single sentence cannot constitute a paragraph. Either expand further or consolidate with another paragraph.

Use units with the IU standards (mg l-1 not ml/l).

Always leave a space between the number and unit (for example, 10 Kg, 4 min, 9 h) except in the case of temperature degrees and percentage (34°C and 20%)

Be consistent with the format of scientific names (in or outside parentheses), citations (Name, 1990 or Name 1990; et al. or et al.), range of numbers with hyphens (20 - 30 or 20-30), etc.

Language


Graphs
Graphs expand further or consolidate with another paragraph


Graphs1
Graphs expand further or consolidate with another paragraph


Graphs2
Graphs expand further or consolidate with another paragraph


Preparation sequence

1. Prepare Graphs and Tables expand further or consolidate with another paragraph(This will create the “frame” of the paper)

2. Prepare the Title page (This will form the “theme” of the paper)

3. Start writing the manuscript

- Materials & methods

- Results

- Introduction (based on the Results you will build the background, justification of the study and its objectives)

- Discussion (interpret the results, relate to the current knowledge, suggest and justify further research, draw conclusions)

- References

4. Read again, and again, and again

Preparation sequence


Words of wisdom

If you prepare an article badly, it will take you expand further or consolidate with another paragraph3-times as long to complete than you planned.

Words of wisdom


Words of wisdom1

If you prepare an article well, it will take you only expand further or consolidate with another paragraph2-times as long to complete than you planned.

Words of wisdom


Words of wisdom2

It always takes longer than you think!!! expand further or consolidate with another paragraph

Καλή επιτυχία!

Words of wisdom


The hcmr institute of aquaculture

Five research institutes expand further or consolidate with another paragraph

Institute of Aquaculture

Institute of Marine Biology and Genetics

Institute of Oceanography

Institute of Marine Biological Resources (Fisheries)

Institute of Inland Waters

Two public aquaria

- Rhodes Hydrobiological Station

- Creta Aquarium

Institute of Aquaculture

In Crete

Institute of Marine Biology

and Genetics

Cretaquarium

The HCMR-Institute of Aquaculture

Hellenic Center for Marine Research

www.hcmr.gr

Reproduction and

Broodstock management


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