Passive No More: Fostering Creative Thinking in Higher Education Classrooms. Rita L. Halasz LDR 622 Student Development Siena Heights University 11-11-2012. Critical Thinking. Reasoning, analysis, skepticism, evaluation, problem solving A desire to understand (Reinstein & Lander, 2008)
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Passive No More:Fostering Creative Thinking in Higher Education Classrooms
Rita L. Halasz
LDR 622 Student Development
Siena Heights University
Reasoning, analysis, skepticism, evaluation, problem solving
A desire to understand
(Reinstein & Lander, 2008)
Using rational criteria in evaluation
(Browne & Freeman, 2000)
Analyzing conclusions for their basis in truth
Critical Thinking is Cultivated
“It is a mental habit and power. It is a prime condition of human welfare that men and women should be trained in it” (Sumner, 1906, p. 633).
“Excellence in thought, however, must be systematically cultivated”
(Defining critical thinking, 2011, para. 9).
Today’s Employers Expect Critical Thinkers
Employers’ Top Desired Outcomes in Graduates
(Hart Research Associates, 2010), p. 2)
Is Higher Education Producing Higher Order Thinking?
45% of college students show no
appreciable increases in higher order learningafter two years of college
After four years . . .
36% show no significant improvement in learning
(Arum, Roksa, & Cho, 2011)
(Browne & Freeman, 2000; Evans, Forney, Guido, Patton, & Renn, 2010)
Student Development & Critical Thinking
(Evans, et al., 2010)
High degree of personalism, structure, and experiential learning in the classroom
Order 2 - Rules
Need for authority
Decreasing structure & personalism. Increased risk taking, complexity of tasks
Order 3 - Socialized Mind
Acceptance > Conflict
High diversity of assignments: complexity and volume
High risk environment
Order 4 – Self-authored
Responsible for own beliefs
(Evans, Forney, Guido, Patton, & Renn, 2010)
The Developmental Dissonance of the Classroom
that college instruction tends to use
while students tend
to function in
The classroom needs to possess the attributes of critical thinking to ensure that
all students can bridge the gap.
(Evans et al., 2010)
Attributes of Critical Thinking Classrooms
(Browne & Freeman, 2000)
Significantly improved higher order thinking when students are engaged in:
Diversity Fostered Critical Thinking
Significantly higher benefits were recognized when employed with First Year Students
Cross-racial or ethnicity relationships
Diversity & cultural workshops
Discussions with those of opposing/different views of:
ReligionEthnicity & Race
(Pascarella, Palmer, Moye, & Pierson, 2001)
Each group of students takes a Hat and analyzes the position, proposal, belief,
or conclusion from the Hat’s perspective.
Values & benefits
Why it will work
Why it will not work
Six Thinking Hats- Looking at all views
Facts & information:
Known or needed
(Geissler, Wayland & Jane, 2012; What are the six thinking hats?, 2009)
Diverse interactions, relationships, and meaningful discussions
Looking at all views
Demand for evidence
Enthusiasm for truth and its pursuit
The New 21st Century Classroom,
21st Century’s Students
Perhaps most importantly in today’s information age,
thinking skills are viewed as crucial for educated persons to cope
with a rapidly changing world.
Many educators believe that
specific knowledge will not be as important to tomorrow’s
workers and citizens
as the ability to learn and make sense of new information.
(Gough’s Thinking about thinking, as cited in Cotton, 1991, p. 1)
Arum, R., Roksa, J., & Cho, E. (2011). Improving undergraduate learning: Findings and policy recommendations from the SSRC-CLA longitudinal project. Retrieved from Social Science Research Council website:http://www.ssrc.org/publications/view/D06178BE-3823-E011-ADEF-001CC477EC84/
Browne, M. N., Freeman, K. (2000). Distinguishing features of critical thinking classrooms. Teaching in Higher Education,5(3), 301. Retrieved from: http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.sienaheights.edu:2048/docview/223219527/13A34049C303DE35869/1?accountid=28644
Cotton, K. (1991, November). Close-up #11: Teaching thinking skills. School Improvement Research Series. Retrieved from: http://educationnorthwest.org/webfm_send/502
Defining critical thinking. (2011). Foundation for Critical Thinking. Retrieved from: http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/defining-critical-thinking/766
Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., Guido, F.M., Patton, L.D., & Renn, K.A. (2010). Student development in college: Theory, research, and practice (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Geissler, G. L., Wayland, S. W., Jane, P. (2012). Improving students’ critical thinking, creativity, and communications skills. Journal of Instructional Pedagogies, 8, 1-11. Retrieved from: http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.sienaheights.edu:2048/docview/1020694208/13A4E0396244DE20D45/1?accountid=28644#
Hart Research Associates. (2010). Raising the bar: Employers’ views on college learning in the wake of the economic downturn: A survey among employers conducted on behalf of the Association of American Colleges and Universities. Retrieved [originally] from: http://www.aacu.org
Pascarella, E.T., Palmer, B., Moye, M., & Pierson, C.T. (2001). Do diversity experiences influence the development of critical thinking? Journal of College Student Development, 42(3), 257-257. Retrieved from: http://search.proquest.com/docview/195181857/fulltext/13A4DD6AA67190F77E2/1?accountid=28644#
Reinstein, A., & Lander, G. H. (2008). Developing critical thinking in college programs. Research in Higher Education Journal, 1, 78-94. Retrieved from: http://search.proquest.com/docview/760989878?accountid=28644##
Sumner, W. G. (1906). Folkways: A study of the sociological importance of usages, manners, customs, mores, and morals [Google Books]. Boston, MA: Ginn.
What are the six thinking hats? (2009). Retrieved from http://www.debonoconsulting.com/what-are-the-six-thinking-hats.asp