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06 BENTHOS. I. Sponges (Phylum Porifera) A. Evolutionary history 1. Fossil sponges are some of the oldest known multi-celled animals . Fossil Sponge Showing a Honey-combed Pore Pattern. Fort Scott Limestone in Bourbon County, Kansas. A. Evolutionary history (continued)

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Fossil Sponge Showing a Honey-combed Pore Pattern

Fort Scott Limestone in Bourbon County, Kansas.


A. Evolutionary history (continued)

2. In phylogenic studies, sponges have been treated as a sister group to the other animal (= Metazoa) taxa.


  • Evolutionary history

  • 3. Recent genetic evidence, however, suggests that the ctenophores may have separated from the other animals before the sponges


Major events of loss and gain in the evolution of early animal tissue complexity are suggested by the analysis of the first representative genome from the ctenophore phylum

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6164/1327/F1.large.jpg


  • I. Sponges (continued) animal tissue complexity are suggested by the analysis of the first representative genome from the ctenophore phylum

  • B. Body parts

    • Epithelial cells only (no muscle, connective, nor nervous tissue)

    • Structural protein SPONGIN

  • (1) Coarse collagen fibers

  • (2) Responsible for resilient and absorbent properties of sponge skeleton


Spongin Fibers animal tissue complexity are suggested by the analysis of the first representative genome from the ctenophore phylum

http://media.photobucket.com/user/Zoology1/media/kingdom%20Anamalia/Porifera/Spongefibers2.jpg.html?filters[term]=spongin&filters[primary]=images&filters[secondary]=videos&sort=1&o=0


B. Body Parts of Sponges (continued) animal tissue complexity are suggested by the analysis of the first representative genome from the ctenophore phylum

3. SPICULES

a. Deposits of…

(1) Calcium carbonate

(2) Silica

b. Function to…

(1) …provide structural strength especially in narrow passageways

(2) …inhibit predation


Spicules from an Hexactinellid Sponge animal tissue complexity are suggested by the analysis of the first representative genome from the ctenophore phylum

Figs. 5-9A & B, p. 84


Spicules from modern sponge animal tissue complexity are suggested by the analysis of the first representative genome from the ctenophore phylum

Magnification = 100X

http://media.photobucket.com/user/paulfuentebella/media/Lab%2012/IMAG0164.jpg.html?filters[term]=grantia%20spicules&filters[primary]=images&filters[secondary]=videos&sort=1&o=0


Spicules from a Fossil Sponge Stained Orange by Iron Oxide animal tissue complexity are suggested by the analysis of the first representative genome from the ctenophore phylum

Lower Ordovician, Idaho

http://www.fallsoftheohio.org/Fossil_Sponges.html


I. Sponges (continued) animal tissue complexity are suggested by the analysis of the first representative genome from the ctenophore phylum

C. Rely upon currents to filter-feed


C. Filter-feeding currents (continued) animal tissue complexity are suggested by the analysis of the first representative genome from the ctenophore phylum

1. Water flow

a. Enters through external pores into small passageways known as CHOANOCYTE CHAMBERS

(1) Lined by cells called CHOANOCYTES

(2) Food particles are captured

b. Processed water enters a CENTRAL CAVITY

c. Waste water leaves via openings called OSCULA [= little mouth; osculum = sing.]


Central Cavity animal tissue complexity are suggested by the analysis of the first representative genome from the ctenophore phylum

Central Cavity

Arrows show locations of oscula


Summary of Filter-feeding in Sponges animal tissue complexity are suggested by the analysis of the first representative genome from the ctenophore phylum


C. Filter-feeding currents (continued) animal tissue complexity are suggested by the analysis of the first representative genome from the ctenophore phylum

2. Control of feeding currents

a. Some sponges can pass their own weight in water every 5 seconds


Cheap Thoughts animal tissue complexity are suggested by the analysis of the first representative genome from the ctenophore phylum

By

Jack O’Brien

How does an organism with no muscles “pump” water through its body?


2. Control of feeding currents (continued) animal tissue complexity are suggested by the analysis of the first representative genome from the ctenophore phylum

b. BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE:

(1) A decrease in the X-sectional area of a pipe causes an increase in the velocity of a liquid flowing through that pipe (river moves slowly in wide portions of a canyon and rapidly in a narrows)

(2) The volume of a fluid passing by any point remains the same, so a decrease in the X-sectional area at a point results in an increase in flow


The relationship between the area of a tube and the velocity of a non-compressible fluid passing through that tube. (The lengths of the arrows labelled v represent relative velocities of the fluid.)

http://titans.s716.ips.k12.in.us/~blachlym/pol/ch-09/5/5.htm


b, BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE (continued) of a non-compressible fluid passing through that tube. (The lengths of the arrows labelled

(3) Since the X-sectional areas of all the choanocyte chambers is greater than the area of the osculum…

(a) …the speed of the water current leaving the sponge at the osculum is greater than the speed of the water currents entering pores and the choanocyte chambers

(b) …waste water is carried away from sponge


More Cheap Thoughts of a non-compressible fluid passing through that tube. (The lengths of the arrows labelled

By

Jack O’Brien

Why don’t algae, barnacles and other encrusting or fouling agents grow on sponges?


Biofouling of a non-compressible fluid passing through that tube. (The lengths of the arrows labelled

http://www.tvja.org/science/fouling_community_study.htm


Sponges apparently use of a non-compressible fluid passing through that tube. (The lengths of the arrows labelled

“chemical warfare”

Science 2008, 320: 1030


Science of a non-compressible fluid passing through that tube. (The lengths of the arrows labelled 2008, 320: 1028


Currently there are numerous pharmaceutical companies sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

This includes Johnson & Johnson original support of the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute in Ft. Meyers, FL now affiliated with Florida Atlantic University


The deep-water submersible sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.Johnson-Sea Link

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Johnson_Sealink.png


Florida Keys sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

Photo: J. O’Brien, 2011


Poriferans sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

Photo: J. O’Brien, 2011


Large Barrel Sponge sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

Photo: J. O’Brien, 2011


  • II. Mollusks sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    • A. Adults lack obvious segmentation

    • B. Specialized structures

      • 1. RADULA

  • a. Rasping tongue-like structure

  • b. Can bore holes in prey or scrape algae from rocks

  • c Possesses a hhardness value of 6 on the Mohs scale

  • (1) Diamond hardness is 10

  • (2) Harder than poor grades of steel


  • EM of sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    Radula


    • Specialized structures (continued) sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    • 2. Muscular FOOT

      • a. Movement

      • b. Attachment (limpets & abalone)

      • 3. Calcareous SHELL

      • 4. MANTLE

      • a. Thin layer of tissue under shell

      • b. Lays down shell

      • c. Respiratory organ


    Keyhole Limpet with Mantle Covering External Shell sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.


    • Specialized structures (continued) sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    • 5. MANTLE CAVITY

      • a. Space between mantle & body organs

      • b. Location of GILLS

      • c. Inhalant and exhalant feeding currents

      • move through it


    II. Mollusks (continued) sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    C. Most marine mollusks have a TROCHOPHORE larva that develops into a VELIGER


    Castro & Huber sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    2003, p. 332

    TROCHOPHORE larva

    Found in Annelids and Mollusks


    • D. Gastropoda sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

      • 1. Most diversified molluscan class (35,000 species)

      • 2. OPERCULUM

        • a. On coiled shelled gastropods

        • b. Hard plate that covers aperture when foot withdrawn

        • c. Functions

        • (1) Protection

        • (2) Prevents desiccation


    Operculum of a Whelk sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    http://barnegatshellfish.org/images/whelk/operculum_whelk_bb_01_l.PNG


    • D. Gastropoda (continued) sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    • 3. Neogastropods

      • a. Characteristics

        • (1) Extendible BUCCAL TUBE or PROBOSCIS (snout) with mouth at end

        • (2) Portion of mantle forms a SIPHON

        • (3) Shell has a SIPHONAL CANAL


    • Neogastropods (continued) sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    • Examples

    • (1) Whelks common in seagrass habitats


    Siphonal Canal sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    Siphon

    Buscyon, Lightening whelk feeding on a bivalve

    Lippson & Lippson, 1984, Life in the Chesapeake,p. 53


    Whelk egg string sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    Photo: J. O’Brien 2013

    Common whelklaying eggs

    Picture: Ron Offermans http://molluscs.at/gastropoda/index.html?/gastropoda/sea/common_whelk.html


    Coral Reef Gastropods sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    Photo: J. O’Brien, 2011


    Conchs in a Boat sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    Photo: J. O’Brien, 2011


    Conchs on a Shelf sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    Photo: J. O’Brien, 2011


    Conchs in Space sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    Photo: J. O’Brien, 2011


    • Examples of neogastropods (continued) sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    • Cone Shells

    • (a) Predators on tropical reefs

    • (b) Teeth of radula are harpoon-like

    • (c) Contain venom

    • (d) Stabbed into prey by proboscis


    Cone Shells with Names Carved into Shell sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    Photo: J. O’Brien, 2011


    E. Bivalves sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    1. Structures

    a. Shell formed of two valves

    b. LIGAMENT acts to spring open valves

    c. Large powerful ADDUCTOR MUSCLES close valves

    (good tasting)


    Clam and Mussel sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    Painting by Georgia O’Keefe, 1926


    • Bivalves (continued) sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    • Filter-feeders

    • a. Gills covered with mucus

    • b. Trap suspended particles (= plankton)

    • c. Cilia carry food to mouth

    • d. LABIAL PALPS

      • (1) Reject unsuitable food

      • (2) Form PSEUDOFECES


    • Bivalves (continued) sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    • Life-styles

    • a. Most bury in unstable substrates

    • b. Dig by contracting valves and moving foot

    • c. Siphon extends up into water column


    siphons sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.


    • Bivalves (continued) sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    • 4. Mussels

    • a. Attach to firm substrates with BYSSUS THREADS

    • b. Mytilus edulis

    • (1) Edible mussel

    • (2) Defend themselves by pinning predatory snails with byssus threads


    Littorina sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties., Marsh Periwinkle

    Geukensia Ribbed Mussel

    (Bivalve)

    Lippson & Lippson, 1984, Life in the Chesapeake,p. 162


    • Bivalves (continued) sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    • 4. Oysters

    • a. Attach with cement

    • b. Mantle secretes cement around attached valve

    • c. Smaller valve remains free


    Oyster Drill sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    Oyster, Crassostrea, and Associated Mollusks

    Lippson & Lippson, 1984, Life in the Chesapeake,p. 123


    Mobile Press Register sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.March 9, 2008


    Mobile Press Register sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.March 9, 2008


    • Bivalves (continued) sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    • 5. Shipworms

    • a. Bivalves that burrow into submerged wood

    • b. Repeated movement of rough valves erodes cavity

    • c. Destroy wharves


    Inhalent & exhalent siphons sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    Shell

    Shipworm removed from tunnel

    http://web.forestry.ubc.ca/fetch21/FRST308/lab8/bankia_setacea/bankia%20wormA1_1.JPG


    Wood damaged by shipworms sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    http://web.forestry.ubc.ca/fetch21/FRST308/lab8/bankia_setacea/Bankia%20in%20galB1_1.JPG


    • Bivalves (continued) sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties.

    • 6. Tridacna

    • a. “Man-eating” clam

    • b. Harbor colorful zooxanthellae

    • (= symbiotic dinoflagellates)

    • c. Biggest bivalve on tropical reefs


    Tridacna sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties., the “Man-eating” Clam


    Tridacna sponsoring research on chemicals produced by sponges and their symbionts looking for medicinal properties., with colorful Zooxanthellae