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Bellwork. Write the electron configurations for magnesium and chlorine. How many electrons do these elements have in their highest energy level?. Valence electrons are the electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an atom.

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Bellwork
Bellwork

  • Write the electron configurations for magnesium and chlorine.

  • How many electrons do these elements have in their highest energy level?


Bellwork

The number of valence electrons largely determines the chemical properties of an element.


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Valence electrons
Valence Electrons

  • Applications of Group 4A Elements

Silicon

Carbon

Germanium


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Lewis Dot Diagrams

  • Because valence electrons are so important to the behavior of an atom, it is useful to represent them with symbols.


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A Lewis dot diagram illustrates valence electrons as dots (or other small symbols) around the chemical symbol of an element.


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  • The element’s symbol represents the core of the atom—the nucleus plus all the inner electrons.


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Lewis Dot Structures for Atoms

See supercool handout

 Classwork- Draw dot structures for the following elements and write which energy level the valence electrons are found in.

1. Hydrogen 2. Helium 3. Sodium 4. Magnesium 5. Aluminum 6. Silicon 7. Phosphorous 8. Oxygen 9. Flourine 10. Sulfur 11. Chlorine 12. Krypton 13. Iodine 14. Arsenic 15. Calcium 16. Tin 17. Xenon


Bellwork

  • Noble gases, such as neon and argon, are unreactive in chemical reactions. In 1916, chemist Gilbert Lewis used this fact to explain why atoms form certain kinds of ions and molecules.

  • The octet rule: In forming compounds, atoms tend to achieve the electron configuration of a noble gas.


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Formation of cations
Formation of Cations sodium atom by drawing the complete electron configuration of the atom and of the ion formed.

  • The electron configuration of the sodium ion is the same as that of a neon atom.



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To draw a Lewis Dot Structure for an ion more simply.

1. Draw the structure for the neutral atom.

Example for Cl-

2. Add or subtract electrons depending on the ions charge. add an electron for each negative charge

subtract an electron for each positive charge

3. Place your structure in [brackets] and label the charge.


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Classwork- more simply.

Draw dot structures for the following ions

18. H- 19. H+ 20. Na+ 21. Be2+

22. Al3+ 23. Li+ 24. Ca2+ 25. O2-

26. F- 10. S2- 27. Cl- 28. I-

29. As3-

30. Why don’t noble gases form ions?


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Conceptual problem 7 1
Conceptual Problem 7.1 halogens gain electrons are called halide ions.


7 1 section quiz
7.1 Section Quiz. halogens gain electrons are called halide ions.

  • 1. How many valence electrons are there in an atom of oxygen?

    • 2

    • 4

    • 6

    • 8


7 1 section quiz1
7.1 Section Quiz. halogens gain electrons are called halide ions.

  • 2. Atoms that tend to gain a noble gas configuration by losing valence electrons are

    • metals.

    • nonmetals.

    • noble gases.

    • representative elements.


7 1 section quiz2
7.1 Section Quiz. halogens gain electrons are called halide ions.

  • 3. When a magnesium atom forms a cation, it does so by

    • losing two electrons.

    • gaining two electrons.

    • losing one electron.

    • gaining one electron.


7 1 section quiz3
7.1 Section Quiz. halogens gain electrons are called halide ions.

  • 4. When a bromine atom forms an anion, it does so by

    • losing two electrons.

    • gaining two electrons.

    • losing one electron.

    • gaining one electron


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