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Knight Sweeper 4200 Group 9 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Phong Le (EE) Josh Haley (CPE) Brandon Reeves (EE) Jerard Jose (EE) Sponsor : WCF Mentor: Ryan Reis (Lockheed Martin). Knight Sweeper 4200 Group 9. Goals and Objectives. Scan terrain based on s tart to end autonomous route Detection of IED Notify and pinpoint location of detection

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Knight Sweeper 4200 Group 9

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Phong Le (EE)

Josh Haley (CPE)

Brandon Reeves (EE)

Jerard Jose (EE)

Sponsor: WCF

Mentor: Ryan Reis (Lockheed Martin)

Knight Sweeper 4200Group 9


Goals and Objectives

  • Scan terrain based on start to end autonomous route

  • Detection of IED

  • Notify and pinpoint location of detection

  • Avoid any obstacles encountered on route


Motivation

  • Use of IED has increased since the Vietnam War

  • Low Budget spending on platforms used for detecting IED’s

  • Technology improves but yet death by IED increases

  • More creative ways of utilizing IED’s


Knight Sweeper

  • Knight Sweeper will be able to operate in autonomous and manual mode.

  • During autonomous mode Knight Sweeper will be able to navigate itself from a start to end point

  • During the autonomous operation Knight Sweeper will be able to avoid any IED or obstacle within its path


Specifications


Hardware Block Diagram

Power

Data


Rover Platform

  • Identify type, size, wheels and motors.

  • A New Design

  • Use an existing design


Rover Platform

  • Carry maximum payload of 5 lbs.

  • Able to place sensors forward facing and down.

  • Capability to traverse different terrain types, i.e. dirt, grass, sand etc.


Rover Platform Comparison


Lynxmotion A4WD1

  • Chassis

    • Length is 9.75”

    • Width is 8”

    • Height is 3.5”

    • Lexan Panels

  • Wheels

    • Diameter is 4.75”

    • Width is 2.375”

    • Rubber Tires

    • Output Shaft is 6 mm

  • Additional levels can be added if necessary


Motors


Motor GHM-02

  • Brushed DC Motor Type

  • Allows for Pulse Width Modulation Control

  • Fits the A4WD1 chassis


Motor Control

  • Identify how the vehicle will move.

  • Determine algorithm for obstacles.

  • Determine algorithm for detected IED.

  • Verify motor controller functionality.


Motor Controller

  • H-Bridge configuration

    • Forward

    • Reverse

    • Brake

    • Clockwise Rotation

    • Counterclockwise Rotation


IC H-Bridge


L298N

L = LowH = HighX = Don’t Care


L298N


L298N


IED Detection

  • Beat Frequency Oscillation

    • Two separate coils oscillator and a search coil

    • Oscillator creates a constant signal at a set frequency

    • Detection of metal by search coil creates a magnetic field

    • Magnetic field interferes with radio frequency, offset in frequency then creates an audible beat


TDA0161

  • Metallic detection done by detecting variation in high frequencies

  • Output signal determined by supply current changes

  • Current is high or low depending on the presence of a close metallic object

  • Output Current 10mA

  • Oscillator Frequency 10MHZ

  • Supply Voltage 4-35V


IED Detection


IED Detection

  • Two external circuits to implement two TDA0161 IC’s.


IED Detection


IED Detection

  • When the search coils detect metallic objects pin 6 outputs 1v


IED Detection

  • Two search coils needed to cover the width of the vehicle

  • Each coil made with magnet wire

  • Both coils set at about 155 uH

  • Fixture to extend the coils in front of the actual vehicle


IED Detection

  • Old PCB’s found in the lab will be used to simulate IED’s

  • Copper is easily picked up by the search coils

  • FREE


Obstacle Avoidance

  • One Maxbotix LV-MaxSonar-EZ0 High Performance Module mounted on front

  • Detection Range 6”-245” w/ 45 degree beam width


Maxbotix LV-MaxSonar-EZ0

  • Use of three pins

    • GND (Ground)

    • Vcc (+5 V)

    • Analog Pin (Output)

  • Analog Pin

    • Outputs a voltage proportional to the distance

    • Range Formula : Vm/Vi=Ri

      • Vm = Measured Voltage, Vi = Volts per inch (scaling factor of 9.76mV), Ri = Range.


Serial Camera


TTL Serial JPEG Camera w/ NTSC Video

  • Extras

    • Manually Adjustable Focus

    • Auto white balance

    • Auto brightness

    • Auto contrast

    • Motion detection

    • Multiple Resolutions


GPS Navigation

  • Pro Gin SR-92

    • Update time: 1 second

    • Baud rate 9600 bps

    • 3.3V Required

    • 40 mA continuous tracking mode

    • 5 Pin interface

    • Send data over serial


Compass

  • LSM303DLH

    • Supply voltage of 2.5-3.3V

    • 16 bit data out

    • Serial interface

    • 3 magnetic field and 3 accelerometer channels

    • Sleep-to-wake up mode

    • Current consumption of (3uA-83mA)


Wireless Module

  • XBee-PRO

    • Range of 300m indoor

    • Range of 1500m outdoor


Microcontroller

  • Stellaris M3 8962 Dev board.

  • Stellaris offers high computational power at 62.5 MIPS.

  • Offers 64K of RAM

    • Important for the A* algorithm

  • Interrupt Driven

  • Abundance of code examples and libraries

  • 74HC4052 Analog MUX for UART multiplexing


Power System

  • Integrated Power Supply

    • 14.8 VDC

      • DC motors

      • IED Detection

    • 5 VDC

      • Stellaris Microcontroller

      • Serial Camera

      • Obstacle Avoidance

    • 3.3 VDC

      • GPS Navigation

      • Wireless

      • Compass


POWER

14.8V

5V

3.3V

DC Motors

IED Detection

5V Reg

MCU

Obstacle

Avoidance

14.8V

Wireles

GPS

Compass

Serial Camera

3.3V

Reg


Lithium Polymer Battery

  • Tenergy Lithium Polymer Battery

    • 14.8V at 5500 mAh

  • Reasons for choosing

    • High energy density (Wh/kg)

    • High energy/dollar (Wh/$)

    • High charge efficiency (80-90%)

    • Low self-discharge


  • Linear vs. Switching Regulators

    • Linear Regulators

      • Easy to implement

      • Heat sink usually required

      • ~50% efficient

      • Clean voltage

    • Switching Regulators

      • Up to 88% efficient

      • Requires more components

      • Reduction in size of Heat sink needed

      • Sawtooth ripple voltage at the switching frequency


    Switching Regulators

    • Texas Instruments TL2575 Family (3.3V ,5V, 12V, and adjustable.

    • Up To 88% Efficient (about 1V goes to heat)

    • Apply a small LC filter to reduce output ripple by a factor of 10.


    Switching Regulator Circuit


    POWER

    14.8V

    5V

    3.3V

    DC Motors

    IED Detection

    5V Reg

    MCU

    Obstacle

    Avoidance

    14.8V

    Wireles

    GPS

    Compass

    Serial Camera

    3.3V

    Reg


    Software Overview

    • PC Software

    • Operator Interface

    • Allows for control

    • Display of robot status

    • Embedded Software

    • Initialize Systems

    • Interrupt Driven Obstacle and IED detection

    • Autonomous Navigation

    Wireless


    PC Software

    • Written In java

    • Displays current location

    • Command Modes


    Communication Interface

    • Layered Approach via Xbee wireless

    Embedded Software

    PC Software

    Application Layer

    Application Layer

    UART Layer

    UART Layer

    Xbee Wireless

    Xbee Wireless


    Embedded Software

    • C++ via Code Composer

      • Each hardware system has a class

    • Utilizes Stellaris Ware Libraries

    • 4 Modes

    Standby

    Auton-omous

    Manual

    Error


    • Not Depicted:

    • 1Hz Telemetry Message

    • No Valid Path


    AI Navigation

    • Problem: Quickest Way from A to B avoiding all known obstacles and suspected IEDs

    • Use the A* algorithm to find the shortest path

    • Upon IED/Obstacle detection, remove location from the search path and run A* again!


    AI Navigation Example

    Creative Commons License 3.0 from Wikipedia


    System Classes

    ObstacleDetection

    IEDDetection

    SerialCamera

    GPS

    MessagePacket

    PCserial

    Main

    OLED

    Compass

    boolvalidMessage()

    BoolsetChecksum()

    IntgetPayload(unsigned char* returnDatapointer)

    BoolsetPayload(messageType, char* ipayload, intpayloadLength)

    IntgetLength()

    IntgetRawMessageData()

    void initchip()

    void PCSerialISR()

    void processRXmessage()

    Void send1HzTM()

    Void navigate()

    Void runNextMove()

    Intmain()

    void initDisplay()

    void dispSplash()

    void clrScreen();

    Void printLn(char* string);

    void init()

    void getPicture(unsigned char* returnPointer)

    Void initPCSerial()

    intsendMessage(char* buff, intnum)

    BoolgetMessage()

    void init()

    Float getReading()

    void ObstacleISR()

    voidinit()

    void getHeading()

    voidinit()

    IntgetStatus()

    returnLocation()

    void init()

    Float getReading()

    void IEDISR()


    Prototyping

    • Completed

      • Motor controller

      • Power Regulation

      • Wireless Communication

      • Manual Control


    Voltage vs. Time


    TESTING

    • Knight Sweeper test


    Printed Circuit Boards

    • Using Eagle 6.1.0

    • 2 PCB’s will be made

      • Power Regulation and Motor Control

      • Sensors, camera, GPS and wireless


    Printed Circuit BoardPower Regulation & Motor Control

    Top LayerBottom Layer


    Printed Circuit BoardSensors

    Top LayerBottom Layer


    Printed Circuit BoardFabrication


    Printed Circuit BoardFinal Boards

    Motor Control and Power

    Sensors


    Distribution of Responsibilities

    • Phong Le

      • IED Detection

      • Project Management

    • Josh Haley

      • GPS

      • Serial Camera

      • Main Board

      • Lead Software Engineer

    • Brandon Reeves

      • Obstacle Avoidance

      • Power Systems Lead

    • Jerard Jose

      • Motor control lead

      • Platform Selection

      • PCB Fabrication Lead


    Budget


    Project Schedule


    Project Schedule


    What Keeps Us Awake At Night

    • -GPS Accuracy

    • Camera

    • -IED Detection range

    • -Noise from Various Components

    • -Deviation between internal map and real world.

    • -INDUCTORS!!!!


    Knight Sweeper 4200

    QUESTIONS?


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