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Phong Le (EE) Josh Haley (CPE) Brandon Reeves (EE) Jerard Jose (EE) Sponsor : WCF Mentor: Ryan Reis (Lockheed Martin). Knight Sweeper 4200 Group 9. Goals and Objectives. Scan terrain based on s tart to end autonomous route Detection of IED Notify and pinpoint location of detection

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Phong Le (EE)

Josh Haley (CPE)

Brandon Reeves (EE)

Jerard Jose (EE)

Sponsor: WCF

Mentor: Ryan Reis (Lockheed Martin)

Knight Sweeper 4200Group 9


Goals and objectives
Goals and Objectives

  • Scan terrain based on start to end autonomous route

  • Detection of IED

  • Notify and pinpoint location of detection

  • Avoid any obstacles encountered on route


Motivation
Motivation

  • Use of IED has increased since the Vietnam War

  • Low Budget spending on platforms used for detecting IED’s

  • Technology improves but yet death by IED increases

  • More creative ways of utilizing IED’s


Knight sweeper
Knight Sweeper

  • Knight Sweeper will be able to operate in autonomous and manual mode.

  • During autonomous mode Knight Sweeper will be able to navigate itself from a start to end point

  • During the autonomous operation Knight Sweeper will be able to avoid any IED or obstacle within its path




Rover platform
Rover Platform

  • Identify type, size, wheels and motors.

  • A New Design

  • Use an existing design


Rover platform1
Rover Platform

  • Carry maximum payload of 5 lbs.

  • Able to place sensors forward facing and down.

  • Capability to traverse different terrain types, i.e. dirt, grass, sand etc.



Lynxmotion a4wd1
Lynxmotion A4WD1

  • Chassis

    • Length is 9.75”

    • Width is 8”

    • Height is 3.5”

    • Lexan Panels

  • Wheels

    • Diameter is 4.75”

    • Width is 2.375”

    • Rubber Tires

    • Output Shaft is 6 mm

  • Additional levels can be added if necessary



Motor ghm 02
Motor GHM-02

  • Brushed DC Motor Type

  • Allows for Pulse Width Modulation Control

  • Fits the A4WD1 chassis


Motor control
Motor Control

  • Identify how the vehicle will move.

  • Determine algorithm for obstacles.

  • Determine algorithm for detected IED.

  • Verify motor controller functionality.


Motor controller
Motor Controller

  • H-Bridge configuration

    • Forward

    • Reverse

    • Brake

    • Clockwise Rotation

    • Counterclockwise Rotation



L298n
L298N

L = Low H = High X = Don’t Care




Ied detection
IED Detection

  • Beat Frequency Oscillation

    • Two separate coils oscillator and a search coil

    • Oscillator creates a constant signal at a set frequency

    • Detection of metal by search coil creates a magnetic field

    • Magnetic field interferes with radio frequency, offset in frequency then creates an audible beat


Tda0161
TDA0161

  • Metallic detection done by detecting variation in high frequencies

  • Output signal determined by supply current changes

  • Current is high or low depending on the presence of a close metallic object

  • Output Current 10mA

  • Oscillator Frequency 10MHZ

  • Supply Voltage 4-35V



Ied detection2
IED Detection

  • Two external circuits to implement two TDA0161 IC’s.



Ied detection4
IED Detection

  • When the search coils detect metallic objects pin 6 outputs 1v


Ied detection5
IED Detection

  • Two search coils needed to cover the width of the vehicle

  • Each coil made with magnet wire

  • Both coils set at about 155 uH

  • Fixture to extend the coils in front of the actual vehicle


Ied detection6
IED Detection

  • Old PCB’s found in the lab will be used to simulate IED’s

  • Copper is easily picked up by the search coils

  • FREE


Obstacle avoidance
Obstacle Avoidance

  • One Maxbotix LV-MaxSonar-EZ0 High Performance Module mounted on front

  • Detection Range 6”-245” w/ 45 degree beam width


Maxbotix lv maxsonar ez0
Maxbotix LV-MaxSonar-EZ0

  • Use of three pins

    • GND (Ground)

    • Vcc (+5 V)

    • Analog Pin (Output)

  • Analog Pin

    • Outputs a voltage proportional to the distance

    • Range Formula : Vm/Vi=Ri

      • Vm = Measured Voltage, Vi = Volts per inch (scaling factor of 9.76mV), Ri = Range.



Ttl serial jpeg camera w ntsc video
TTL Serial JPEG Camera w/ NTSC Video

  • Extras

    • Manually Adjustable Focus

    • Auto white balance

    • Auto brightness

    • Auto contrast

    • Motion detection

    • Multiple Resolutions


Gps navigation
GPS Navigation

  • Pro Gin SR-92

    • Update time: 1 second

    • Baud rate 9600 bps

    • 3.3V Required

    • 40 mA continuous tracking mode

    • 5 Pin interface

    • Send data over serial


Compass
Compass

  • LSM303DLH

    • Supply voltage of 2.5-3.3V

    • 16 bit data out

    • Serial interface

    • 3 magnetic field and 3 accelerometer channels

    • Sleep-to-wake up mode

    • Current consumption of (3uA-83mA)


Wireless module
Wireless Module

  • XBee-PRO

    • Range of 300m indoor

    • Range of 1500m outdoor


Microcontroller
Microcontroller

  • Stellaris M3 8962 Dev board.

  • Stellaris offers high computational power at 62.5 MIPS.

  • Offers 64K of RAM

    • Important for the A* algorithm

  • Interrupt Driven

  • Abundance of code examples and libraries

  • 74HC4052 Analog MUX for UART multiplexing


Power system
Power System

  • Integrated Power Supply

    • 14.8 VDC

      • DC motors

      • IED Detection

    • 5 VDC

      • Stellaris Microcontroller

      • Serial Camera

      • Obstacle Avoidance

    • 3.3 VDC

      • GPS Navigation

      • Wireless

      • Compass


Power
POWER

14.8V

5V

3.3V

DC Motors

IED Detection

5V Reg

MCU

Obstacle

Avoidance

14.8V

Wireles

GPS

Compass

Serial Camera

3.3V

Reg


Lithium polymer battery
Lithium Polymer Battery

  • Tenergy Lithium Polymer Battery

    • 14.8V at 5500 mAh

  • Reasons for choosing

    • High energy density (Wh/kg)

    • High energy/dollar (Wh/$)

    • High charge efficiency (80-90%)

    • Low self-discharge


  • Linear vs switching regulators
    Linear vs. Switching Regulators

    • Linear Regulators

      • Easy to implement

      • Heat sink usually required

      • ~50% efficient

      • Clean voltage

    • Switching Regulators

      • Up to 88% efficient

      • Requires more components

      • Reduction in size of Heat sink needed

      • Sawtooth ripple voltage at the switching frequency


    Switching regulators
    Switching Regulators

    • Texas Instruments TL2575 Family (3.3V ,5V, 12V, and adjustable.

    • Up To 88% Efficient (about 1V goes to heat)

    • Apply a small LC filter to reduce output ripple by a factor of 10.



    Power1
    POWER

    14.8V

    5V

    3.3V

    DC Motors

    IED Detection

    5V Reg

    MCU

    Obstacle

    Avoidance

    14.8V

    Wireles

    GPS

    Compass

    Serial Camera

    3.3V

    Reg


    Software overview
    Software Overview

    • PC Software

    • Operator Interface

    • Allows for control

    • Display of robot status

    • Embedded Software

    • Initialize Systems

    • Interrupt Driven Obstacle and IED detection

    • Autonomous Navigation

    Wireless


    Pc software
    PC Software

    • Written In java

    • Displays current location

    • Command Modes


    Communication interface
    Communication Interface

    • Layered Approach via Xbee wireless

    Embedded Software

    PC Software

    Application Layer

    Application Layer

    UART Layer

    UART Layer

    Xbee Wireless

    Xbee Wireless


    Embedded software
    Embedded Software

    • C++ via Code Composer

      • Each hardware system has a class

    • Utilizes Stellaris Ware Libraries

    • 4 Modes

    Standby

    Auton-omous

    Manual

    Error



    Ai navigation
    AI Navigation

    • Problem: Quickest Way from A to B avoiding all known obstacles and suspected IEDs

    • Use the A* algorithm to find the shortest path

    • Upon IED/Obstacle detection, remove location from the search path and run A* again!


    Ai navigation example
    AI Navigation Example

    Creative Commons License 3.0 from Wikipedia


    System classes
    System Classes

    ObstacleDetection

    IEDDetection

    SerialCamera

    GPS

    MessagePacket

    PCserial

    Main

    OLED

    Compass

    boolvalidMessage()

    BoolsetChecksum()

    IntgetPayload(unsigned char* returnDatapointer)

    BoolsetPayload(messageType, char* ipayload, intpayloadLength)

    IntgetLength()

    IntgetRawMessageData()

    void initchip()

    void PCSerialISR()

    void processRXmessage()

    Void send1HzTM()

    Void navigate()

    Void runNextMove()

    Intmain()

    void initDisplay()

    void dispSplash()

    void clrScreen();

    Void printLn(char* string);

    void init()

    void getPicture(unsigned char* returnPointer)

    Void initPCSerial()

    intsendMessage(char* buff, intnum)

    BoolgetMessage()

    void init()

    Float getReading()

    void ObstacleISR()

    voidinit()

    void getHeading()

    voidinit()

    IntgetStatus()

    returnLocation()

    void init()

    Float getReading()

    void IEDISR()


    Prototyping
    Prototyping

    • Completed

      • Motor controller

      • Power Regulation

      • Wireless Communication

      • Manual Control



    Testing
    TESTING

    • Knight Sweeper test


    Printed circuit boards
    Printed Circuit Boards

    • Using Eagle 6.1.0

    • 2 PCB’s will be made

      • Power Regulation and Motor Control

      • Sensors, camera, GPS and wireless


    Printed circuit board power regulation motor control
    Printed Circuit BoardPower Regulation & Motor Control

    Top LayerBottom Layer


    Printed circuit board sensors
    Printed Circuit BoardSensors

    Top LayerBottom Layer



    Printed circuit board final boards
    Printed Circuit BoardFinal Boards

    Motor Control and Power

    Sensors


    Distribution of responsibilities
    Distribution of Responsibilities

    • Phong Le

      • IED Detection

      • Project Management

    • Josh Haley

      • GPS

      • Serial Camera

      • Main Board

      • Lead Software Engineer

    • Brandon Reeves

      • Obstacle Avoidance

      • Power Systems Lead

    • Jerard Jose

      • Motor control lead

      • Platform Selection

      • PCB Fabrication Lead





    What keeps us awake at night
    What Keeps Us Awake At Night

    • -GPS Accuracy

    • Camera

    • -IED Detection range

    • -Noise from Various Components

    • -Deviation between internal map and real world.

    • -INDUCTORS!!!!



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