Craig, Heritage of World Civilization, 6th ed.

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Introduction. Between 1450-1650 Islamic culture and statecraft blossomedCreation of three powerful statesOttomanSafavidMughalIslamic civilization seemed as vital as that of western Europe, China or JapanBut by 1600 already fading. Ottoman Origins. Turkish dynastyExchanged land (timars) for mi

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Craig, Heritage of World Civilization, 6th ed.

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1. Craig, Heritage of World Civilization, 6th ed. Chapter 22 - The Last Great Islamic Empires 1500-1800

2. Introduction Between 1450-1650 Islamic culture and statecraft blossomed Creation of three powerful states Ottoman Safavid Mughal Islamic civilization seemed as vital as that of western Europe, China or Japan But by 1600 already fading

3. Ottoman Origins Turkish dynasty Exchanged land (timars) for military service Mehmed II - r. 1451-1481 Conquest of Constantinople in 1453 Selim I - r. 1512-1520 Egyptian Mamluks, Syria-Palestine, Arabia Suleyman the Magnificent - r. 1520-1566 Kurdistan, Georgia, Mesopotamia, Iraq, Eastern Europe

4. Classical Ottoman Order Mehmed II - true founder of Ottoman order Replaced tribal chieftains with loyal servants Qanun-name - formal government legislation Organized ulama - single “Sheikh of Islam” Suleyman’s law code touched all elements Reconciliation of Shari’a and customary law Regularize law and bureaucracy Ottoman state was one military organization

5. After Suleyman Selim II - r. 1566-1574 - Suleyman’s weak son Empire plagued by Military corruption Governmental decentralization Maritime setbacks Agricultural failures Commercial imbalance Inflation

6. Later Culture and Society Late vitality in poetry, prose, music, painting Katib Chelebi - d. 1657 Histories, social commentaries, geographies Na’ima - d. 1716 Great Ottoman historian Nedim - d. 1730 Greatest Ottoman poet Sinan - d. 1678 Imperial master architect

7. Decline of Ottoman Power Failure at Vienna in 1683 Driven out of Hungary and Belgrade Never threatened Europe again Russia took Crimea in 1774 Ottomans were prey to West Blocked on all sides Limited external trade Dependence on agrarian-age economy

8. Safavid Shi’ite Origins Descendents of hereditary Turkish spiritual leaders of a Sunni Sufi order Eventually developed Shi’ite ideology Descent from 7th imam of Twelver Shia Won adherents among Kizilbash Isma’il - recognized as divinely appointed representative of the “hidden” imam Battles with Ottomans and Uzbeks Loss to Ottomans at Chaldiran in 1514

9. Shah Abbas I r. 1588-1629 Greatest Safavid ruler New troops - Caucasian and Kizilbash Pushed Ottomans out of Azerbaijan Dfeated Uzbek invasion in Khorsan Sought European alliances Broke Portuguese monopoly on Persian Gulf Opened trade with English and Dutch commercial companies Built magnificent temple at Isfahan

10. Safavid Decline Poor leadership after Shah Abbas Chief causes of decline Two front pressure from Ottomans, Uzbeks Economic decline Increased power of conservative ulama Persecuted religious minorities, Sunnis Afghan leader captured Isfahan in 1722 Nadir Shah - r. 1736-1747 Restored glory, but officially Sunni

11. Culture Cultural and intellectual renaissance 16th-17th centuries Painting of miniatures Influences of painter Bihzad - 1440-1514 Modified in Safavid times Portraiture and scenes from everyday life Ceramic tiles, porcelain, carpets Magnificent architecture of Isfahan

12. Learning Ishraqi or “illuminationist” school Brought together Mystical bent of Persian Islamic thought Islamic traditions of Aristotelianism Shi’ite speculation about nature of divine truth Two key concepts Transcendence “Realm of images” Mulla Sadra - d. 1640

13. Timurid Origins Babur (d. 1530) marched on India, 1527-1527 Replaced last sultan of Delhi Defeated a Rajput confederacy Ended Indian political fragmentation Invaders were Chaghatay Turks Descended from Timur Babur had an empire stretching from Oxus to Bihar, and Himilaya to the Deccan

14. Akbar r. 1556-1605 Greatest ruler since Ashoka Maybe greatest ruler of 16th century Added North India and northern Deccan Nationalized national tax system Appointed Hindus to positions of power Cancellation of poll tax on non-Muslims Reduce power of hardline ulama Mughal empire becomes truly Indian empire

15. Akbar’s Religious Views Akbar was religious eclectic Showed tolerance of all faiths Unusual interest in different religions Brought representatives of Jains, Buddhists, Brahmans, ulama, Parsis and Jesuits to discuss religion Debates at special hall in Akbar’s palace Fatehpur Sikri

16. Last Great Mughals Jahangir - r. 1605-1627 Allowed English to establish trading post Shah Jahan - r. 1628-1658 High point of Mughal cultural brilliance Taj Mahal Awrangzeb - r. 1658-1707 Persecution of non-Muslims Destroyed Hindu temples Reimposed poll tax

17. Sikhs Guru Nanek - d. 1538 Sikhs traced origins from his teachings Neither Hindu nor Muslim Own scripture and ritual Reformist ideals Persecution by Mughal emperor Awrangzeb Gobind Singh - d. 1708 Turned Sikhs into military force Repeated Sikh uprisings

18. Marathas Shivaji - d. 1680 Leader of the Hindu Marathas Established regional empire in 1646 Army was most disciplined force in India Controlled mountainous western coast Fought Mughal dominance Controlled more of India after 1740 than Mughals Confederation of Deccan states

19. Political Decline India coming apart at seams Rajput, Sikh, Maratha wars Rise of Islamic state of Hyderabad, 1724 Invasion by Nadir Shah in 1739 Invasions by Ahmad Shah Durrani “Founder of modern Afghanistan” British victory at Plassey in 1757 Dominance of British East India Company

20. Religious Developments 1500-1650 - important period in Indian religious life Number of religious figures preached a spiritually oriented piety Transcended legalism of ulama and Brahmans Rejected class distinctions Muslim Sufi and Hindu bhakti influences Early forerunners of this thought Kabir and Nanak

21. Nanak - d. 1538 Nanak - father of Sikh movement Built on Kabir’s ideas Faith in one loving and merciful God Opposed to narrow allegiance to creeds Opposed to excessive pride in external religious observances Both Hindu and Muslim ideas Dadu - d. 1603 - preached a similar message Move beyond Hindu or Muslim allegiance

22. Bhakti Resurgence Upsurge in bhakti devotionalism Amounted to a Hindu revival Chaitanya - d. 1533 Stressed total devotion to Krishna Message - all equal before God Forebears of present day Hare Krishnas Tulasidas - d. 1623 Hindi retelling of Ramayana Presented bhakti ideas

23. Sufi Influence and Backlash Sufi influence on Islamic eclectic thought Many Sufi retreat centers by 1500 Sufi enthusiastic forms of worship And ignoring of external forms of religion Very popular in India Also opposed by puritanical ulama Reaction set in after death of Akbar Ahmad Sirhindi - d. 1624 Attempt to purge Sufism

24. Central Asia Islamic diffusion in Central Asia From trading, urban centers to countryside Islamization by Sunni Sufis, traders As far as western China and Mongolia Only slowed in late 16th century Mongols converted to Buddhism Shi’ite Safavid state surrounded by Sunni states India, Afghanistan, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Transoxiana, western Turkestan

25. Uzbeks Uzbek khanate formed in 1428 Clans of Turks and Mongols Muhammad Shaybani - d. 1510 Uzbek leader, descended from Genghis Khan Invaded Transoxiana in 1495 New Islamic empire, replaced Timurid rule Continued into 18th century, center at Bukhara Khanate of Khiva - 1512-1872 Another independent Uzbek line

26. Chaghatays Chagnatays Successors of Genghis Khan Region from Aral Sea and Oxus River to China Timur broke up state in 1350 Revived Chaghatay state in Turkestan in 1514 Real power lost in 1555 to Khoja princes Sunni zealots who claimed to be Sharifs Some Chaghatay survived in Tarim basin until 1678

27. Shi’ite Rift Sunni-Shi’ite competition made worse by Safavid militancy Split isolated Central Asian Muslims Hurt international flow of Islamic commerce Shi’ites formed alliances with non-Muslims Damaged shared cultural tradition of “Abode of Islam” Limited fate of Persian literary culture Persian language - high culture, bureaucracy

28. Southern Seas Trade Islamic spread in first half of 2nd millennium Java, Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, South India, Gujarat, East Africa, Madagascar, Zanzibar Islamic traders established thriving communities Muslim economic status attracted Socially and religiously mobile peoples Trade route was actually ancient Hindus were main group displaced

29. Control of Southern Seas Portuguese reach east African coast in 1498 Trade routes from east Africa to Malaysia Tied up with Islamic commercial networks Also rising Christian power of western Europe Europeans begin to win by 1500 for two reasons Support of national state support systems Superior warships Commercial victory, but not a religious one Very few converts

30. The Indies: Acheh Indonesia always center for pepper and spices Islamic states by 15th century Last great Hindu kingdom fell in early 1500s Acheh - 1524-1910 Most powerful Islamic state, Sumatra Only counterweight to Portuguese presence Dutch eventually replace Portuguese Dutch finally defeat Acheh - 1873-1910

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