Chapter 4
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Chapter 4. Life in Colonial America (1607-1775). A Land of Variety Variety of Peoples (1607-1775) Colonial Era – from the founding of Jamestown to the War for Independence English, Scots-Irish, German, French, etc. 2.5 million people by 1776 19% African slaves

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Chapter 4

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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Life in Colonial America (1607-1775)


Chapter 4

  • A Land of Variety

    • Variety of Peoples

      • (1607-1775) Colonial Era – from the founding of Jamestown to the War for Independence

      • English, Scots-Irish, German, French, etc.

      • 2.5 million people by 1776

      • 19% African slaves

      • Philadelphia, New York, Boston, and Charles Town were among the largest cities


Chapter 4

  • Diversity of Churches

    • American colonies offered more religious freedom than anywhere else in the world

    • Southern Colonies

      • Maryland, Virginia, N. and S. Carolina, Georgia

      • Anglican church = official church

      • Huguenots = French Protestants in S.C.

      • Paul Revere – (Huguenot descent) Renowned Boston silversmith and patriot


Chapter 4

  • Middle Colonies

    • New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware

    • More religious diversity

      • Presbyterians, Baptists, Anglicans, Mennonites, Dutch Reformed, Quakers, Jews, Amish, Moravians

    • Moravians – wrote the 1st classical music to be composed in America


Chapter 4

  • New England

    • Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island

    • Known for its many churches

    • Most churches in the early years were Puritan (Congregational) churches

  • Role of Christianity

    • The Bible helped shape American character

    • Christianity gave people a sense of nobility and hard work


Chapter 4

  • The Livelihood of the Colonies

    • Agriculture

      • 90% of colonists depended on farming (main occupation)

      • Farmers were self-reliant

      • Homespun – linen and wool cloth from which clothes were made


Chapter 4

  • New England – the region least suited for agriculture

    • Long winters

    • Short growing season

    • Rocky terrain

  • Middle Colonies = “Bread Colonies”

    • They produced an abundance of grain

  • Southern Colonies

    • Tobacco

    • Indigo – used to produce blue dye


Chapter 4

  • Industry

    • Lumber – New England had lots of trees

    • Shipbuilding (from the timber)

    • Fishing and whaling (from the shipbuilding)

      • Cold Atlantic waters held great fish

    • Fur trading

      • Bartering – trading or exchanging goods with the Indians

    • Blacksmithing – shod horses and forged tools for farming and wagons

    • England was chief overseas customer


Chapter 4

  • Triangle Trade Route

    • 2 distinct ports that New England used

    • Africa  West Indies  Back to N. E.

  • Fruits of Freedom

    • Mercantilism – colonies existed solely for the good of the mother country


Chapter 4

  • Colonial Culture

    • Home Life

      • Houses started simple/temporary

      • Then came log cabins/wood cottages

        • Nails were scarce

      • Dutch (New York) used brick homes

      • Southern plantations had mansions

      • (1720’s) Georgian Architecture

        • Large brick/stone homes

      • The fireplace was central in American life


Chapter 4

  • Travel and Communication

    • (1750) “Post Roads” connected major cities

    • Stagecoaches travelled between cities

  • Recreation

    • Quilting bees

    • Corn huskings

    • Barn Raisings


Chapter 4

  • Social Classes

    • Social status = building successful life in the wilderness

    • 3 social classes

      • Top = Aristocracy (wealthy)

      • Middle = Farmers / Shop-keepers

      • Bottom = Servants / Slaves

    • Slavery in the South = an established institution


Chapter 4

  • Life on the Frontier

    • Frontier: sparsely populated areas on the fringe of settlement

    • Appalachian Mtns. were natural barrier to the West

    • Daniel Boone

      • Discovered Cumberland Gap – a natural pass through the mtns.

      • Explored Kentucky and Tennessee

      • His trail is known as “The Wilderness Road”


Chapter 4

  • The Advance of Learning

    • Grammar School

      • New England

        • Dame School – conducted by widow or single lady

        • Hornbook = paddle-shaped book with alphabet, Lord’s prayer, or scripture verse

        • New England Primer = most widely used textbook in Colonial America


Chapter 4

  • Middle Colonies

    • Latin Grammar Schools

    • Philadelphia Academy= founded by Benjamin Franklin

  • Southern Colonies

    • Private tutors

    • Old-field schools

  • Apprentices = boys placed under the authority and care of a master craftsman in order to learn a trade


Chapter 4

  • Higher Education

    • Harvard – Puritans

    • College of William and Mary – Anglicans

    • Yale – Congregationalists

    • Princeton University – Presbyterians

    • Brown University – Baptists

    • Philadelphia Academy – nonsectarian (not founded by a specific religious denomination)


Chapter 4

  • Spread of Knowledge

    • Boston News Letter – 1st regularly published weekly newspaper in colonies

    • Benjamin Franklin

      • encouraged the founding of public libraries

      • Wrote Poor Richard’s Almanac – contained meteorogicaland astronomical info (also told proverbs)


Chapter 4

  • Arts

    • Paul Revere – renowned Boston silversmith

    • William Billings

      • 1st professional musician and composer born in America

      • Started singing schools

  • Science

    • John Winthrop Jr. – 1st American member of Royal society of London (1st scientific society)

    • Benjamin Franklin – best known colonial man of science

    • Benjamin Banneker – built a clock made entirely of wood

    • Cotton Mather – smallpox vaccine


Chapter 4

  • Government in the Colonies

    • Colonial Government

      • 3 types of government (*Essay Question*)

        • Royal Colonies – under direct authority of king

          • Virginia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, North and South Carolina, New York, New Jersey, and Georgia

        • Proprietary Colonies – granted by king to individual proprietors (noblemen)

          • Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware

        • Self-governing – granted charters allowing them to rule themselves

          • Rhode Island, Connecticut

      • Governor – chief executive officer of each colony


Chapter 4

  • Local Government

    • Followed England’s pattern of strong self-government

    • (New England) “town” was the basic unit of local gov.

    • (Southern Colonies) “county” was the basic unit of local gov.


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