Chapter 8 nonverbal influence
Download
1 / 25

Chapter 8 Nonverbal Influence - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 159 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 8 Nonverbal Influence. Overview of nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication is powerful 65-95% of emotional meaning is carried via nonverbal channels. When verbal and nonverbal channels contradict, people assign more weight to nonverbal cues. Nonverbal influence can be subtle

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Chapter 8 Nonverbal Influence' - melissa-rosales


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Chapter 8 nonverbal influence

Chapter 8Nonverbal Influence


Overview of nonverbal communication
Overview of nonverbal communication

  • Nonverbal communication is powerful

    65-95% of emotional meaning is carried via nonverbal channels.

    When verbal and nonverbal channels contradict, people assign more weight to nonverbal cues.

  • Nonverbal influence can be subtle

    • Fisher, Rytting, & Heslin (1976): Library patrons who received an “accidental” touch were more likely to return books on time.


Importance of nonverbal communication
Importance of NonverbalCommunication

  • We use nonverbal communication to:

  • Shape impressions of ourselves

    • enhance attractiveness, credibility, status

  • Establish rapport, immediacy

    • touch, smiling, eye contact

    • Facilitate or inhibit attention

      • distraction to decrease attention

  • Model behavior (social proof)

    • Putting on a seatbelt

  • Signal expectations

    • eye contact to signal turn-taking

  • Violate others’ expectations

    • standing too close

    • talking too loud


  • The direct effects model of immediacy
    The Direct Effects model of Immediacy

    • Andersen (1999): warm, involving, immediate behaviors enhance the persuasiveness of a message

      • It is easier to comply with those we like.

      • We tend to trust warm, friendly people.


    Types of nonverbal comm

    Nonverbal Codes

    TYPES OF NONVERBAL COMM

    Page 5


    Eye contact
    Eye Contact

    • Eye contact conveys:

      • interest, attention

      • attraction, liking

      • warmth, immediacy

    • Eye contact usually enhances persuasion

      • “gaze produced greater compliance than gaze aversion in every one of the 12 studies” (Segrin, 1993p. 173)


    Eye contact1
    Eye Contact

    • Panhandlers try to establish eye contact first.

    • Speakers who avoid eye contact are perceived as less credible.

    • The exception to the general rule

      • Kleinke found that an illegitimate request was more effective without eye contact.


    Smiling
    Smiling

    • Smiling is an immediacy behavior.

    • Smiling conveys

      • warmth, attraction, liking, sincerity

    • Food servers who smile receive larger tips.

    • Job applicants who smile are rated more favorably.

    • Cheaters who smiled received more lenient treatment.

    • Excessive smiling may backfire.

      • May be perceived as phony

      • May be perceived as shallow


    Mirroring
    Mirroring

    • Mirroring involves matching or mimicking another’s behavior.

      • eye contact, posture, gestures

    • Mirroring conveys

      • similarity, empathy

    • Nonverbal mimicry facilitates persuasion.

    • Mirroring negative nonverbal cues may be counterproductive

      • frowning, scowling, closed posture


    Kinesics
    Kinesics

    • “Research shows that people who use gestures more freely are more persuasive, and that people remember gestures better than words” (Bernstein, 1994, p. 64-65).

    • Emblems have precise verbal meanings.

    • Peace sign

    • Shush

    • Shame on you

    • Come here

    • Zip it

    • Illustrators accompany speech.

      • “I love you this much…”

      • “Use just a pinch…”


    Kinesics1
    Kinesics

    • Nonverbal communication in the courtroom:

    • Trial lawyers use gesture, movement, eye contact, clothing, and appearance cues to sway jurors (Cotler, 1993).


    Kinesics2
    Kinesics

    • Adaptors are unintentional cues that signal negative feelings

      • Lip biting

      • Nail biting

      • Hand wringing

      • Hair twirling

    • Adaptors convey

      • boredom

      • nervousness

      • stress


    Haptics touch
    Haptics (touch)

    The “Midas Touch”: Touch generally facilitates compliance gaining.

    • Food servers who used touch received larger tips (Crusco & Wetzel (1984), Hornick (1992).

    • Touch must be perceived as appropriate in location, duration, intensity.

    • A person asked a stranger to watch a big, unruly dog for 10 minutes while he/she went into a bank.

      • 55% of subjects who were touched consented.

      • 35% of subject who weren’t touched consented Gueguen & Fischer-Lokou (2002).


    Haptics
    Haptics

    • Segrin’s meta-analysis revealed that:

      • Of 13 studies examined, “it can be concluded touch always produces as much, and in many cases more compliance than no touch, all other things being held equal” (p. 174)

      • Touch must be perceived as appropriate.


    Proxemics
    Proxemics

    • Geographical closeness increases liking, attraction.

      • Based on perceived similarity

      • Even in online settings

    • Personal space: Standing closer tends to facilitate compliance gaining

    Slide 15


    Proxemics1
    Proxemics

    • Segrin’s meta-analysis of proximity studies revealed that “the effect for closer proximity was consistent. Close space produces greater compliance than distant space” (p. 173)

    • “close” distance was typically operationalized as 1-2 ft., “far” was usually 3-5 ft.

    Slide 16


    Expectancy violations theory
    Expectancy Violations Theory

    • Buller & Burgoon (1986)

    • People have expectations about what constitutes appropriate behavior in social situations

      • example: elevator etiquette

    • Violations of expectations are perceived positively or negatively, depending upon:

      • the status, reward power of the communicator

      • the range of interpretations that can be assigned to the violation

      • the perception/evaluation of the interpreted act

    Slide 17


    Chronemics
    Chronemics

    • Time spent waiting confers power, status

      • example: M.D.s and patients

      • example: Professors and students

    • Tardiness can negatively impact credibility

      • Burgoon et al (1989): late arrivers were considered more dynamic, but less competent, less sociable than those who were punctual

    • There are huge cultural differences in time-consciousness

    Slide 18


    Culture and time

    Western culture: M-time emphasizes precise schedules, promptness, time as a commodity

    “time is money”

    “New York minute”

    “Down time”

    “Limited Time Offer!”

    “Must Act Now”

    Other cultures: P-time cultures don’t value punctuality as highly, don’t emphasize precise schedules

    “island time”

    Sioux Indians have no spoken words for “late” or “tardy”

    Culture and Time


    Time as a sales strategy
    Time as a sales strategy promptness, time as a commodity

    • Urgency as a sales tactic

      • must act now, limited time offer, first come first serve

      • Time windows; shop early and save, super savings from 7am-10am

      • 1 hour photo, Lenscrafters, Jiffy Lube, drive through banks, etc.

    • Non-urgency as a sales strategy

      • 90 days same as cash

      • No No No sales

      • mega-bookstores that encouraging browsing, lingering


    Artifacts
    Artifacts promptness, time as a commodity

    • Material objects as an extension of the self

    • Uniforms and compliance gaining

      • Lawrence & Watson (1991): requests for contributions were greater when requesters wore uniforms

      • Bickman (1971): change left in a phone booth was returned to

        • well dressed people 77% of the time

        • poorly dressed people only 38% of the time

      • Clothing signifies status, authority


    Clothing and status factors promptness, time as a commodity

    • Gueguen (2003) Shoppers were less likely to report a well-dressed shoplifter than a casually dressed or poorly dressed shoplifter.

      • Neatly dressed: suit & tie (90% did not report)

      • Neutral: Clean jeans, tee-shirt and jacket, moccasins (63% did not report)

      • Slovenly: Dirty jeans, torn jacket, sneakers (60% did not report)

    Slide 22


    Clothing and status factors
    Clothing and status factors promptness, time as a commodity

    • Gueguen & Pichot (2001): pedestrians were more likely to “jaywalk” if a well-dressed person did so.

      • Control condition: 15.6% violations of do not walk signal

      • Well-dressed: 54.5% violations

      • Casually dressed: 17.9% violations

      • Poorly dressed: 9.3% violations


    Attractiveness and social influence
    Attractiveness and Social Influence promptness, time as a commodity

    • Stewart (1980) studied the relationship between attractiveness and criminal sentencing

      • handsome defendants were twice as likely to avoid a jail sentence

    • Benson, Kerabenic, & Lerner (1976): both sexes were more likely to comply with a request for assistance if the requester was attractive.

    Which of these two people would you offer to help?

    Slide 24


    Paralanguage
    Paralanguage promptness, time as a commodity

    Slide 25

    • How you say it

      • Fluency facilitates persuasion

        • Pauses, gaps, diminish credibility

      • Speaking faster generally increases credibility

        • Speaking too fast may hinder comprehension

      • Pitch variation generally increases persuasiveness

        • Avoid a monotone delivery


    ad