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Lecture # 12 Cost Curves Lecturer: Martin Paredes. Outline. Long Run Cost Functions Shifts Average and Marginal Cost Functions Economies of Scale Deadweight Loss Long Run Cost Functions Relationship between Long Run and Short Run Cost Functions. Long Run Cost Function.

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Lecture # 12 Cost Curves Lecturer: Martin Paredes

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Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Lecture # 12

Cost Curves

Lecturer: Martin Paredes


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Outline

  • Long Run Cost Functions

    • Shifts

    • Average and Marginal Cost Functions

    • Economies of Scale

    • Deadweight Loss

  • Long Run Cost Functions

    • Relationship between Long Run and Short Run Cost Functions


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Long Run Cost Function

Definition: The long run total cost function relates the minimized total cost to output (Q) and the factor prices (w and r).

TC(Q,w,r) = wL*(Q,w,r) + r K*(Q,w,r)

where L* and K* are the long run input demand functions


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Long Run Cost Function

Example: Long Run Total Cost Function

  • SupposeQ = 50L0.5K0.5

  • We found:L*(Q,w,r) = Q . r 0.5

    50 w

    K*(Q,w,r)= Q . w 0.5

    50 r

  • Then

    TC(Q,w,r) = wL*(Q,w,r) + rK*(Q,w,r)

    = Q . (wr)0.5

    25

( )

( )


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Long Run Cost Curve

Definition: The long run total cost curve shows the minimized total cost as output (Q) varies, holding input prices (w and r) constant.


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Example: Long Run Cost Curve

  • Recall TC(Q,w,r) = Q . (wr)0.5

    25

  • What if r = 100 and w = 25?

    TC(Q,w,r) = Q . (25100)0.5

    25

    = 2Q


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

TC (€ per year)

Example: A Total Cost Curve

TC(Q) = 2Q

Q (units per year)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

TC (€ per year)

Example: A Total Cost Curve

TC(Q) = 2Q

€2M.

1 M.

Q (units per year)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

TC (€ per year)

Example: A Total Cost Curve

TC(Q) = 2Q

€4M.

€2M.

1 M.

2 M.

Q (units per year)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Long Run Cost Curve

  • We will observe a movement along the long run cost curve when output (Q) varies.

  • We will observe a shift in the long run cost curve when any variable other than output (Q) varies.


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

K

Example: Movement Along LRTC

Q0

TC = TC0

K0

0

L (labour services per year)

L0


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

K

Example: Movement Along LRTC

Q0

TC = TC0

K0

0

L (labour services per year)

L0

TC (€/yr)

LR Total Cost Curve

TC0=wL0+rK0

Q (units per year)

0

Q0


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

K

Example: Movement Along LRTC

Q1

Q0

TC = TC0

K1

K0

TC = TC1

0

L (labour services per year)

L0

L1

TC (€/yr)

LR Total Cost Curve

TC0=wL0+rK0

Q (units per year)

0

Q0


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

K

Example: Movement Along LRTC

Q1

Q0

TC = TC0

K1

K0

TC = TC1

0

L (labour services per year)

L0

L1

TC (€/yr)

LR Total Cost Curve

TC1=wL1+rK1

TC0=wL0+rK0

Q (units per year)

Q1

0

Q0


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Long Run Cost Curve

Example: Shift of the long run cost curve

  • Suppose there is an increase in wages but the price of capital remains fixed.


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

K

Example: A Change in the Price of an Input

Q0

0

L


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

K

Example: A Change in the Price of an Input

TC0/r

A

Q0

-w0/r

0

L


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

K

Example: A Change in the Price of an Input

TC0/r

A

Q0

-w1/r

-w0/r

0

L


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

K

Example: A Change in the Price of an Input

TC1/r

B

TC1 > TC0

TC0/r

A

Q0

-w1/r

-w0/r

0

L


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

TC (€/yr)

Example: A Shift in the Total Cost Curve

TC(Q) ante

Q (units/yr)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

TC (€/yr)

Example: A Shift in the Total Cost Curve

TC(Q) ante

TC0

Q0

Q (units/yr)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

TC (€/yr)

Example: A Shift in the Total Cost Curve

TC(Q) post

TC(Q) ante

TC1

TC0

Q0

Q (units/yr)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Long Run Average Cost Function

Definition: The long run average cost curve indicates the firm’s cost per unit of output.

  • It is simply the long run total cost function divided by output.

    AC(Q,w,r) = TC(Q,w,r)

    Q


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Long Run Marginal Cost Function

Definition: The long run marginal cost curve measures the rate of change of total cost as output varies, holding all input prices constant.

MC(Q,w,r) = TC(Q,w,r)

Q


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Example: Average and Marginal Cost

  • RecallTC(Q,w,r) = Q . (wr)0.5

    25

  • Then: AC(Q,w,r) = (wr)0.5

    25

    MC(Q,w,r) = (wr)0.5

    25


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Example: Average and Marginal Cost

  • If r = 100 and w = 25, then

    TC(Q) = 2Q

    AC(Q) = 2

    MC(Q) = 2


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

AC, MC (€ per unit)

Example: Average and Marginal Cost Curves

AC(Q) =

MC(Q) = 2

$2

0

Q (units/yr)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

AC, MC (€ per unit)

Example: Average and Marginal Cost Curves

AC(Q) =

MC(Q) = 2

$2

0

1M

Q (units/yr)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

AC, MC (€ per unit)

Example: Average and Marginal Cost Curves

AC(Q) =

MC(Q) = 2

$2

0

1M 2M

Q (units/yr)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Average and Marginal Cost

  • When marginal cost equals average cost, average cost does not change with output.

    • I.e., if MC(Q) = AC(Q), then AC(Q) is flat with respect to Q.

  • However, oftentimes AC(Q) and MC(Q) are not “flat” lines.


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Average and Marginal Cost

  • When marginal cost is less than average cost, average cost is decreasing in quantity.

    • I.e., if MC(Q) < AC(Q), AC(Q) decreases in Q.

  • When marginal cost is greater than average cost, average cost is increasing in quantity.

    • I.e., if MC(Q) > AC(Q), AC(Q) increases in Q.

  • We are implicitly assuming that all input prices remain constant.


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

AC, MC (€/yr)

Example: Average and Marginal Cost Curves

“Typical” shape of AC

AC

0

Q (units/yr)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

AC, MC (€/yr)

Example: Average and Marginal Cost Curves

“Typical” shape of MC

MC

AC

0

Q (units/yr)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

AC, MC (€/yr)

Example: Average and Marginal Cost Curves

MC

AC

AC at minimum when AC(Q)=MC(Q)

0

Q (units/yr)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Economies and Diseconomies of Scale

Definitions:

If the average cost decreases as output rises, all else equal, the cost function exhibits economies of scale.

If the average cost increases as output rises, all else equal, the cost function exhibits diseconomies of scale.

The smallest quantity at which the long run average cost curve attains its minimum point is called the minimum efficient scale.


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

AC (€/yr)

Example: Minimum Efficient Scale

AC(Q)

0

Q (units/yr)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

AC (€/yr)

Example: Minimum Efficient Scale

AC(Q)

0

Q (units/yr)

Q* = MES


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

AC (€/yr)

Example: Minimum Efficient Scale

AC(Q)

Diseconomies of scale

0

Q (units/yr)

Q* = MES


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

AC (€/yr)

Example: Minimum Efficient Scale

AC(Q)

Diseconomies of scale

Economies of scale

0

Q (units/yr)

Q* = MES


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Example: Minimum Efficient Scale for Selected

US Food and Beverage Industries

IndustryMES (% market output)

Beet Sugar (processed)1.87

Cane Sugar (processed)12.01

Flour0.68

Breakfast Cereal9.47

Baby food2.59

Source: Sutton, John, Sunk Costs and Market Structure. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1991.


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Returns to Scale and Economies of Scale

  • There is a close relationship between the concepts of returns to scale and economies of scale.

  • When the production function exhibits constant returns to scale, the long run average cost function is flat: it neither increases nor decreases with output.


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Returns to Scale and Economies of Scale

When the production function exhibits increasing returns to scale, the long run average cost function exhibits economies of scale: AC(Q) increases with Q.

When . the production function exhibits decreasing returns to scale, the long run average cost function exhibits diseconomies of scale: AC(Q) decreases with Q.


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Example: Returns to Scale and Economies of Scale


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Output Elasticity of Total Cost

Definition: The output elasticity of total cost is the percentage change in total cost per one percent change in output.

  • TC,Q = (% TC) = TC. Q = MC

  • (% Q) Q TC AC

  • It is a measure of the extent of economies of scale


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Output Elasticity of Total Cost

  • If TC,Q > 1, then MC > AC

    • AC must be increasing in Q.

    • The cost function exhibits economies of scale.

  • If TC,Q < 1, then MC > AC

    • AC must be increasing in Q

    • The cost function exhibits diseconomies of scale.


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Example: Output Elasticities for Selected

Manufacturing Industries in India

IndustryTC,Q

Iron and Steel0.553

Cotton Textiles1.211

Cement1.162

Electricity and Gas0.3823


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Short Run Cost Functions

Definition: The short run total cost function tells us the minimized total cost of producing Q units of output, when (at least) one input is fixed at a particular level.

  • It has two components: variable costs and fixed costs:

    STC(Q,K0) = TVC(Q,K0) + TFC(Q,K0)

    • (where K0 is the amount of the fixed input)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Short Run Cost Functions

Definitions:

The total variable cost function is the minimised sum spent on variable inputs at the input combinations that minimise short run costs.

The total fixed cost function is the total amount spent on the fixed input(s).


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

TC ($/yr)

Example: Short Run Total Cost,

Total Variable Cost

Total Fixed Cost

TFC

Q (units/yr)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

TC ($/yr)

Example: Short Run Total Cost,

Total Variable Cost

Total Fixed Cost

TVC(Q, K0)

TFC

Q (units/yr)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

TC ($/yr)

Example: Short Run Total Cost,

Total Variable Cost

Total Fixed Cost

STC(Q, K0)

TVC(Q, K0)

TFC

Q (units/yr)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

TC ($/yr)

Example: Short Run Total Cost,

Total Variable Cost

Total Fixed Cost

STC(Q, K0)

TVC(Q, K0)

rK0

TFC

rK0

Q (units/yr)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Example: Short Run Total Cost

  • Suppose:Q = K0.5L0.25M0.25

    w = €16

    m = €1

    r = €2

  • Recall the input demand functions:

    LS* (Q,K0) = Q2

    4K0

    MS*(Q,K0) = 4Q2

    K0


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Example (cont.):

  • Short run total cost:

    STC(Q,K0) = wLS* + mMS* + rK0

    = 8Q2 + 2K0

    K0

  • Total fixed cost:

    TFC(K0) = 2K0

  • Total variable cost:

    TVC(Q,K0) = 8Q2

    K0


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Relationship Between Long Run and

Short Run Total Cost Functions

  • Compared to the short-run, in the long-run the firm is “less constrained”.

  • As a result, at any output level, long-run total costs should be less than or equal to short-run total costs:

    TC(Q)  STC(Q,K0)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Relationship Between Long Run and

Short Run Total Cost Functions

  • In other words, any short run total cost curve should lie above the long run total cost curve.

  • The short run total cost curve and the long run total cost curve are equal only for some output Q*, where the amount of the fixed input is also the optimal amount of that input used in the long-run.


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Example: Short Run and Long Run Total Costs

K

Q0

0

L


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Example: Short Run and Long Run Total Costs

K

TC0/r

Q0

A

0

L

TC0/w


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Example: Short Run and Long Run Total Costs

K

TC0/r

Q0

A

K0

0

L

TC0/w


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Example: Short Run and Long Run Total Costs

K

Q1

TC0/r

Q0

A

K0

0

L

TC0/w


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Example: Short Run and Long Run Total Costs

K

Q1

TC0/r

Q0

A

B

K0

0

L

TC0/w


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Example: Short Run and Long Run Total Costs

K

TC2/r

Q1

TC0/r

Q0

A

B

K0

0

L

TC0/w TC2/w


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Example: Short Run and Long Run Total Costs

K

TC2/r

Q1

TC1/r

C

TC0/r

Q0

A

B

K0

0

L

TC0/w TC1/w TC2/w


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Example: Short Run and Long Run Total Costs

K

TC2/r

Expansion path

Q1

TC1/r

C

TC0/r

Q0

A

B

K0

0

L

TC0/w TC1/w TC2/w


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Total Cost (€/yr)

Example: Short Run and Long Run Total Costs

TC(Q)

0

Q (units/yr)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Total Cost (€/yr)

Example: Short Run and Long Run Total Costs

TC(Q)

A

TC0

0

Q0

Q (units/yr)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Total Cost (€/yr)

Example: Short Run and Long Run Total Costs

TC(Q)

TC1

C

A

TC0

0

Q0

Q1

Q (units/yr)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Total Cost (€/yr)

Example: Short Run and Long Run Total Costs

STC(Q,K0)

TC(Q)

TC1

C

A

TC0

0

Q0

Q1

Q (units/yr)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Total Cost (€/yr)

Example: Short Run and Long Run Total Costs

STC(Q,K0)

TC(Q)

B

TC2

TC1

C

A

TC0

0

Q0

Q1

Q (units/yr)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Total Cost (€/yr)

Example: Short Run and Long Run Total Costs

STC(Q,K0)

TC(Q)

B

TC2

TC1

C

A

TC0

K0 is the LR cost-minimising

quantity of K for Q0

0

Q0

Q1

Q (units/yr)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Short Run Average Cost Function

Definition: The short run average cost function indicates the short run firm’s cost per unit of output.

  • It is simply the short run total cost function divided by output, holding the input prices (w and r) constant.

    SAC(Q,K0) = STC(Q,K0)

    Q


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Short Run Marginal Cost Function

Definition: The short run marginal cost curve measures the rate of change of short run total cost as output varies, holding all input prices and fixed inputs constant.

SMC(Q,K0) = STC(Q,K0)

Q


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Notes:

  • The short run average cost can be decomposed into average variable cost and average fixed cost.

    SAC = AVC + AFC

    where:

    AVC = TVC/Q

    AFC = TFC/Q

  • When STC = TC, then also SMC = MC


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

€ Per Unit

Example: Short Run Average Cost,

Average Variable Cost

Average Fixed Cost

AFC

0

Q (units per year)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

€ Per Unit

Example: Short Run Average Cost,

Average Variable Cost

Average Fixed Cost

AVC

AFC

0

Q (units per year)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

€ Per Unit

Example: Short Run Average Cost,

Average Variable Cost

Average Fixed Cost

SAC

AVC

AFC

0

Q (units per year)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

€ Per Unit

Example: Short Run Average Cost,

Average Variable Cost

Average Fixed Cost

SMC

SAC

AVC

AFC

0

Q (units per year)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Relationship Between Long Run and

Short Run Average Cost Functions

  • Just as with total costs curves, any short run average cost curve should lie above the long run average cost curve.

  • In fact, the long run average cost curve forms a boundary or envelope around the set of short-run average cost curves.


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

€ per unit

The Long Run Average Cost Curve as an Envelope Curve

SAC(Q,K1)

0

Q (units per year)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

€ per unit

The Long Run Average Cost Curve as an Envelope Curve

SAC(Q,K1)

SAC(Q,K2)

0

Q (units per year)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

€ per unit

The Long Run Average Cost Curve as an Envelope Curve

SAC(Q,K3)

SAC(Q,K1)

SAC(Q,K2)

0

Q (units per year)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

€ per unit

The Long Run Average Cost Curve as an Envelope Curve

SAC(Q,K3)

SAC(Q,K4)

SAC(Q,K1)

SAC(Q,K2)

0

Q (units per year)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

€ per unit

The Long Run Average Cost Curve as an Envelope Curve

SAC(Q,K3)

SAC(Q,K4)

SAC(Q,K1)

AC(Q)

SAC(Q,K2)

0

Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4

Q (units per year)


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Summary

Long run total cost curves plot the minimized total cost of the firm as output varies.

Movements along the long run total cost curve occur as output changes.

Shifts in the long run total cost curve occur as input prices change.


Lecture 12 cost curves lecturer martin paredes

Summary

Average costs tell us the firm’s cost per unit of output.

Marginal costs tell us the rate of change in total cost as output varies.

Relatively high marginal costs pull up average costs, relatively low marginal costs pull average costs down.


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