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Age of Napoleon. Early Life . Napoleon Bonaparte dominated French and European history from 1799-1815. Brought the French Revolution to an end in 1799 Born in Corsica 1769 Son of a lawyer who came from Florentine nobility Studied at a military school in France

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early life
Early Life
  • Napoleon Bonaparte dominated French and European history from 1799-1815.
  • Brought the French Revolution to an end in 1799
  • Born in Corsica 1769
  • Son of a lawyer who came from Florentine nobility
  • Studied at a military school in France
  • 1785 became lieutenant in the French army
    • Studied philosophes and military campaigns of great military leaders
early life1
Early Life
  • 1792 captain of French army
  • 1794(25 yrs old) brigadier of Committee of Public Safety
  • 1796 commander of French army in Italy
    • Won confidence from his men
    • ability to make quick decisions
    • intelligence
    • ease with words
    • confidence in himself
early life2
Early Life
  • 1797 returned to France as a hero
    • Given job to command and train an army to invade Britain
      • He proposed to invade Egypt and threatening India
        • Major sources of British wealth
  • 1799 took part in Coup d\'état and set up the consulate
    • New government
    • Napoleon controlled entire government as first consul
    • Made himself consul for life
    • Crowned himself Emperor
domestic policies
Domestic Policies
  • Created peace with the catholic church
    • Took the role of a different religion depending on where he was
  • Created seven codes of law
    • Civil Code (Napoleonic code) - recognized equality of all citizens
    • Choose their profession
    • Religious toleration
    • Abolition of serfdom and feudalism
    • Made it more difficult to get divorce if you were a woman
  • Hired officials
    • Didn’t matter if they were royal or revolutionary officials
    • Based on ability
  • Created new aristocracy
    • Only 22% were from old regime
    • 60% were middle class
  • Napoleon preserved ideas of the revolution
    • Civil code
    • Government careers to people on ability
  • Changed ideas as well
    • Shut down 60 of 73 newspapers in France
    • All manuscripts were subject to government scrutiny
    • Mail was opened by government police
napoleon s empire
Napoleon’s Empire
  • When he became consul in 1799 France was at war with Russia, Great Britain and Austria
    • Signed a peace treaty in 1802
      • But didn’t last long
  • 1803 war began with Great Britain
    • Great Britain was joined by Austria, Russia and Prussia
  • Napoleon’s army defeated Austria, Prussia and Russia
french empire
French Empire
  • 1807-1812 France was composed of 3 major parts
  • French Empire
    • Enlarged France (Rhine to the east and western half of Italy North of Rome)
  • Dependent States
    • Kingdoms under rule of Napoleon’s relatives
      • Spain, Holland, Italy, Swiss Republic, Grand Duchy of Warsaw, Confederation of Rhine (Germany)

Allied States

    • Defeated by Napoleon and forced to join the struggle against Britain
      • Prussia, Austria Russia, and Sweden
principles of the revolution
Principles of the Revolution
  • Napoleon wanted to spread the ideas of the French Revolution
    • Legal equality, religious tolerance, and economic freedom
  • He tried to destroy the old order within the Empire
    • Nobility and clergy lost their privileges
european response
European Response
  • Napoleon wanted his empire to last for centuries
  • It collapsed as quickly as it was formed
    • Britain survival
    • Nationalism
britain s survival
Britain’s Survival
  • Because Britain had a great Navy they could not be attacked
  • Napoleon wanted to attack but British Navy defeated a French-Spanish navy in 1805
  • Napoleon turned to his continental system
    • Goal was to stop British goods from being sold in Europe
      • By weakening their economy he would destroy their ability to wage war
  • A unique cultural identity of people based on common language, religion, and national symbols
  • Napoleon’s spread of French ideals made nationalism spread elsewhere
  • Hated by their oppressors
    • Stirred patriotism in opposition to French rule
  • Showed nations what nationalism could do
fall of napoleon
Fall of Napoleon
  • Russia refused to be apart of the continental system
  • Napoleon had no choice but to invade
  • June 1812 a Grand Army of 600,000 men invaded Russia
  • Napoleon needed a quick victory
  • But Russians retreated for hundreds of miles burning everything

When they reached Moscow everything was burnt and there was no food or supplies

    • This began the great retreat.
      • Only 40,000 troops returned home
  • This led to other European nations to attack France
    • Paris was captured in 1814
      • Napoleon was exiled to Elba
  • Monarchy was restored to Louis XVIII
    • Brother of King, Louis XVI
the final defeat
The Final Defeat
  • The new king had little support
    • Napoleon made his way back to France
      • Announced he was emperor
  • He raised another army and attacked the nearest allied forces in Belgium
  • At Waterloo in Belgium he was met by the Duke of Wellington
    • Led a British and Prussian Army
  • He was defeated and exiled to St. Helena