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Age of Napoleon. Early Life . Napoleon Bonaparte dominated French and European history from 1799-1815. Brought the French Revolution to an end in 1799 Born in Corsica 1769 Son of a lawyer who came from Florentine nobility Studied at a military school in France

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Early life
Early Life

  • Napoleon Bonaparte dominated French and European history from 1799-1815.

  • Brought the French Revolution to an end in 1799

  • Born in Corsica 1769

  • Son of a lawyer who came from Florentine nobility

  • Studied at a military school in France

  • 1785 became lieutenant in the French army

    • Studied philosophes and military campaigns of great military leaders


Early life1
Early Life

  • 1792 captain of French army

  • 1794(25 yrs old) brigadier of Committee of Public Safety

  • 1796 commander of French army in Italy

    • Won confidence from his men

    • ability to make quick decisions

    • intelligence

    • ease with words

    • confidence in himself


Early life2
Early Life

  • 1797 returned to France as a hero

    • Given job to command and train an army to invade Britain

      • He proposed to invade Egypt and threatening India

        • Major sources of British wealth

  • 1799 took part in Coup d'état and set up the consulate

    • New government

    • Napoleon controlled entire government as first consul

    • Made himself consul for life

    • Crowned himself Emperor


Domestic policies
Domestic Policies

  • Created peace with the catholic church

    • Took the role of a different religion depending on where he was

  • Created seven codes of law

    • Civil Code (Napoleonic code) - recognized equality of all citizens

    • Choose their profession

    • Religious toleration

    • Abolition of serfdom and feudalism

    • Made it more difficult to get divorce if you were a woman


Bureaucracy
Bureaucracy

  • Hired officials

    • Didn’t matter if they were royal or revolutionary officials

    • Based on ability

  • Created new aristocracy

    • Only 22% were from old regime

    • 60% were middle class


Bureaucracy1
Bureaucracy

  • Napoleon preserved ideas of the revolution

    • Civil code

    • Government careers to people on ability

  • Changed ideas as well

    • Shut down 60 of 73 newspapers in France

    • All manuscripts were subject to government scrutiny

    • Mail was opened by government police


Napoleon s empire
Napoleon’s Empire

  • When he became consul in 1799 France was at war with Russia, Great Britain and Austria

    • Signed a peace treaty in 1802

      • But didn’t last long

  • 1803 war began with Great Britain

    • Great Britain was joined by Austria, Russia and Prussia

  • Napoleon’s army defeated Austria, Prussia and Russia


French empire
French Empire

  • 1807-1812 France was composed of 3 major parts

  • French Empire

    • Enlarged France (Rhine to the east and western half of Italy North of Rome)

  • Dependent States

    • Kingdoms under rule of Napoleon’s relatives

      • Spain, Holland, Italy, Swiss Republic, Grand Duchy of Warsaw, Confederation of Rhine (Germany)


  • Allied States

    • Defeated by Napoleon and forced to join the struggle against Britain

      • Prussia, Austria Russia, and Sweden


Principles of the revolution
Principles of the Revolution

  • Napoleon wanted to spread the ideas of the French Revolution

    • Legal equality, religious tolerance, and economic freedom

  • He tried to destroy the old order within the Empire

    • Nobility and clergy lost their privileges


European response
European Response

  • Napoleon wanted his empire to last for centuries

  • It collapsed as quickly as it was formed

    • Britain survival

    • Nationalism


Britain s survival
Britain’s Survival

  • Because Britain had a great Navy they could not be attacked

  • Napoleon wanted to attack but British Navy defeated a French-Spanish navy in 1805

  • Napoleon turned to his continental system

    • Goal was to stop British goods from being sold in Europe

      • By weakening their economy he would destroy their ability to wage war


Nationalism
Nationalism

  • A unique cultural identity of people based on common language, religion, and national symbols

  • Napoleon’s spread of French ideals made nationalism spread elsewhere

  • Hated by their oppressors

    • Stirred patriotism in opposition to French rule

  • Showed nations what nationalism could do


Fall of napoleon
Fall of Napoleon

  • Russia refused to be apart of the continental system

  • Napoleon had no choice but to invade

  • June 1812 a Grand Army of 600,000 men invaded Russia

  • Napoleon needed a quick victory

  • But Russians retreated for hundreds of miles burning everything


  • When they reached Moscow everything was burnt and there was no food or supplies

    • This began the great retreat.

      • Only 40,000 troops returned home

  • This led to other European nations to attack France

    • Paris was captured in 1814

      • Napoleon was exiled to Elba

  • Monarchy was restored to Louis XVIII

    • Brother of King, Louis XVI


The final defeat
The Final Defeat no food or supplies

  • The new king had little support

    • Napoleon made his way back to France

      • Announced he was emperor

  • He raised another army and attacked the nearest allied forces in Belgium

  • At Waterloo in Belgium he was met by the Duke of Wellington

    • Led a British and Prussian Army

  • He was defeated and exiled to St. Helena


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