Operational hazards
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Operational Hazards. The overall objective for this module is that the participants will recognize general safety hazards and safe work practices related to fixed facility work. Overview. Common safety hazards Safe work practices Preventing and treating heat and cold stress

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Operational hazards

Operational Hazards

The overall objective for this module is that the participants will recognize general safety hazards and safe work practices related to fixed facility work


Overview

Overview

  • Common safety hazards

  • Safe work practices

  • Preventing and treating heat and cold stress

  • Proper lifting and handling

  • Confined space procedures


Expectations

Expectations

  • Define a general safety hazard

  • Identify general methods to prevent accidents

  • Recognize general safety-hazard categories and related precautions

  • Identify symptoms and prevention measures for heat stress and cold stress


Expectations1

Expectations

  • Recognize biological hazards

  • Recognize ergonomic hazards

  • Identify general precautions for confined space work

  • Identify potential fire hazards and fire prevention strategies


What is an operational hazard

What is an Operational Hazard?


Operational hazard

Operational Hazard

  • Anything on or around a work site which may compromise worker safety or health if appropriate control measures are not implemented


Prevention of accidents

Prevention of Accidents

  • Aware of changing conditions

  • Take initiative to correct potential safety hazards

  • Understand the task

  • Watch for weather conditions, wind direction and unusual odors


Ten common causes of accidents

Ten Common Causes of Accidents

  • Poor instructions

  • Poor planning

  • Improper design

  • Improper equipment provided or

    used

  • Failure to follow instructions


Ten common causes of accidents1

Ten Common Causes of Accidents

  • Neglect or improper use of equipment

  • Faulty equipment

  • Untrained personnel

  • Uncooperative personnel

  • Uncontrollable or unexpected outside agents (e.g., weather or sudden illness)


Operational hazards

Death

Death

Lost Time

Injury

Reportable Injury

Minor Injuries

Near Misses

Conditions

Acts

Action

of

Others

Knowledge

Maintenance

Motivation

Design

Ability


Operational hazards

Site Hazards

Heavy Equipment

Small Power Tools and Equipment

Hand Tools

Lifting and Carrying

Compressed Gas Cylinders

Electrical Hazards


Operational hazards

Lifting Safely

Back injuries are the Nation’s

#1

Workplace Safety Problem


Lifting safely

Lifting Safely

  • Preparing to Lift

    • Clear obstacles away

    • Heft to check weight

  • Performing the Lift

    • Square with object

    • Balance

    • Squat, bend knees, grip object, tighten abdomen

      USE YOUR LEGS


Safe lifting tips

Safe Lifting Tips

  • Don’t life objects over your head

  • Don’t twist

  • Pace yourself

  • Don’t reach over an obstacle

  • Follow your workplace safety guidelines


Common site hazards

Common Site Hazards

  • Heat stress

  • Cold stress

  • Biological hazards

  • Confined spaces


Heat stress

Heat Stress

  • Occurswithin 15 minutes

  • Factors to consider:

    • Poses serious health threats

    • Environmental conditions (including air temperature and humidity)

    • Clothing

    • Workload

    • Individual worker characteristics


Forms of heat stress

Forms of Heat Stress

  • Heat Syncope

  • Heat Cramps

  • Heat Exhaustion

  • Heat Stroke

  • Heat Rash

  • Transient Heat Fatigue


Heat syncope

Heat Syncope

  • Fainting

  • Frequently occurs when a worker is not acclimated to hot environments


Heat cramps

Heat Cramps

  • Caused by excessive loss of salt during sweating

  • Symptoms

    • Muscle spasms in the extremities, abdomen, or back


Heat cramps1

Heat Cramps

  • Treatment

    • Massaging the cramped muscles

    • Replenishing the victim’s water and electrolytes


Heat exhaustion

Heat Exhaustion

  • Victim suffers from a severe lack of fluids and salts

  • Symptoms

    • Pale or flushed skin

    • Moist skin

    • Headache

    • Fatigue

    • Nausea

    • Normal or slightly elevated temperature

    • Profuse sweating


Heat exhaustion1

Heat Exhaustion

  • Treatment

    • Victim must rest in a cool place

    • Drink water


Heat stroke

Heat Stroke

  • Most severe form of heat stress

  • Caused by a failure of the body’s temperature regulation mechanism


Heat stroke1

Heat Stroke

  • Symptoms

    • Absence or reduction of sweating

    • Elevated body temperature

    • Skin is red, hot, and dry

    • Dizziness

    • Nausea,

    • Confusion

  • Treatment

    • Medical attention as soon as possible


Heat rash

Heat Rash

  • Prickly heat and transpires in a hot, humid environment where sweat is unable to evaporate

  • Prevention

    • Worker must periodically rest in a cool place

    • Skin must be bathed regularly and kept as dry as possible


Transient heat fatigue

Transient Heat Fatigue

  • Causes temporary discomfort accompanied by mental and/or psychological strain, which affects task performance, coordination, and alertness

  • Treatment

    • Lessened by gradual adjustment to heat conditions


Prevention of heat stress

Prevention of Heat Stress

  • Maintain adequate water intake

  • Take breaks in a cool place

  • Learn the signs and symptoms of heat stress and respond at the earliest point of detection

  • Schedule heavy work or work in PPE for cool times of the day

  • Move work location to shade or cooler area


Prevention of heat stress1

Prevention of Heat Stress

  • Have workers drink 16 ounces of water before beginning work

  • Urge workers to drink a cup or two of water every 15 to 20 minutes

  • Weigh workers before and after work to determine if fluid replacement is adequate


Cold stress

Cold Stress

  • Superficial Frostbite

  • Deep Frostbite

  • Hypothermia


Superficial frostbite

Superficial Frostbite

  • Characterized by the freezing of only the outer skin layer

  • Treatment

    • Protect the exposed area by placing uncovered fingers under opposite armpits or placing bare frostbitten feet under clothes or against the skin of a companion until pain returns


Superficial frostbite1

Superficial Frostbite

  • NOTE: DO NOT’S

    • Warm frostbitten parts by massaging

    • Expose to an open fire

    • Soak in cold water

    • Rub with snow


Deep frostbite

Deep Frostbite

  • Characterized by the freezing of tissue beneath the outer skin layer

  • Treatment

    • Protect frozen parts from further cold exposure

    • Keep victim warm while being transported to a hospital

  • NOTE: Protect frozen parts from additional injury

    Do not attempt to thaw them in the field


Hypothermia

Hypothermia

  • Characterized by subnormal body temperatures

  • Treatment

    • Keep victim warm

    • Give warm beverages or soup

  • NOTE: Alcohol consumption increases risk

  • NOTE: Death can occur


Prevention of cold stress

Prevention of Cold Stress

  • Wear proper clothing

  • Maintain a proper diet

  • Use shelter

  • Monitor worker’s conditions


Biological hazards

Biological Hazards

  • Ticks

  • Bees and Wasps

  • Spiders and Scorpions

  • Snakes

  • Rabid Animals


Ergonomic hazards

Ergonomic Hazards

  • Study of how a human physically and mentally interacts with the workplace

  • Notify manager or supervisor of hazards


Material handling

Material Handling

  • Use mechanical devices

    • Drum dollies

    • Pallet dollies

    • Push carts and dollies so you can see ahead and around the load


Material handling1

Material Handling

  • Do it the easy way

  • Push rather than pull

  • Bend your knees, not your back

  • Step with legs, don’t rotate

  • Use ladders for high loads

  • Wear steel-toed boots

  • Pick up stacks in two steps

  • Don’t block your visibility


Container handling

Container Handling

  • Hazard Recognition

    • Detonation, fire and explosion

    • Vapor generation

    • Physical injury caused by lifting improperly or moving containers


Container handling1

Container Handling

  • Drum Handling Safety

    • Use forklifts, dollies and pallet jacks

    • Wear protective PPE

    • Check drum for sharp edges or rust

    • Plan the move and clear obstructions

    • Manually lift with good technique

    • Do not handle or move if safety is questioned


Confined space

Confined Space

  • Adequate size and configuration for employee entry

  • Limited means for entry and exit, one and/or small openings

  • Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy, such as small utility spaces


Confined space permits

Confined Space Permits

  • Contains or has the potential for containing a hazardous atmosphere

  • Contains a material that has a potential for engulfing an entrant

  • Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped

  • Contains any other recognized serious safety hazard


Atmospheric hazards

Atmospheric Hazards

  • Flammable gas in excess of 10% LEL

  • Airborne combustible dust which meets LEL

  • Oxygen concentration below 19.5% or in excess of 23.5%

  • An atmosphere which could result in employee exposure in excess of PEL


Other potential hazards

Other Potential Hazards

  • Mechanical Hazards

  • Slips, Trips and Falls

  • ART - There is an “art” to preventing slips, trips and falls

    • Awareness

    • Responsibility

    • Traction


Slips trips and falls

Slips, Trips and Falls

  • Awareness

    • Be alert throughout the workday

    • Look ahead from the knee level

    • Know where there are existing step hazards

    • Look for wet areas

    • Look for obstructions and electrical cords


Slips trips and falls1

Slips, Trips and Falls

  • Responsibility

    • Everyone in the workplace must assume responsibility for keeping a safe work area

    • One is more likely to be injured from a slip, trip, or fall than from hazardous chemicals

    • Take the time to remove the hazard or notify those who are able to do so


Slips trips and falls2

Slips, Trips and Falls

  • Traction

    • Be aware of changing conditions

    • Maintain good footwear with traction

    • Enhance traction by using rough surfacing, lowering slopes of ramps and replacing low-traction surfaces


Fire safety uniform fire code

Fire Safety (Uniform Fire Code)

  • Check with your local fire officials

  • Flammables and combustibles may be a large proportion of waste accepted

  • Multiple hazards

    PROPER STORAGE IS A MUST !


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