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EPISTEMOLOGY. Exploring Our Access To The Truth; Examining Human Reason, Perception And Knowledge Three Great Philosophers And Their Different Epistemologies: Descartes, Locke and Berkeley. DESCARTES’ PROJECT (Background). Descartes (1596-1650)

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epistemology
EPISTEMOLOGY
  • Exploring Our Access To The Truth; Examining Human Reason, Perception And Knowledge
  • Three Great Philosophers And Their Different Epistemologies:
    • Descartes, Locke and Berkeley
descartes project background
DESCARTES’ PROJECT (Background)
    • Descartes (1596-1650)
      • “Father” Of Modern Philosophy; Multi-Talented Genius
      • A Deeply Committed Catholic
  • The Goal: An Edifice Of Knowledge
      • The Inverted Pyramid
  • The Ground Rules: Avoid Error
    • Certainty And Justification
      • Chains Of Justification
      • Need For Certainty In First Link
descartes project cont
Descartes’ Project (cont.)
  • Seeking A Solid Foundation For The Inverted Pyramid Of Knowledge
    • Requirement: Absolute Certainty
    • Primary Tool: The Wrecking Ball Of Cartesian Doubt
      • Cartesian vs. Ordinary Doubt
    • Labor Saving Device: Grouping Beliefs By Virtue Of Their Type Of Support
      • Questioning Sources Of Beliefs
getting to work seeking the foundation
Getting To Work: Seeking The Foundation
  • First Assault On The Senses: The Argument From Illusion
    • Reply: Senses Seem To Work OK Much Of The Time
  • Second Assault On The Senses: The Dreaming Argument
    • Key Point: We Can’t Be Certain That We Aren’t Now Dreaming
seeking the foundation cont
Seeking The Foundation (cont.)
  • Third Assault On Senses; Primary Assault On A Priori (Mathematical) Beliefs And (Almost) Everything Else: The Deceiving Demon Argument
    • Clearing The Decks With Doubt
      • No Source Immune From Deception
    • Note: Don’t Need To Believe Demon Is Real; Only Possible
seeking the foundation cont1
Seeking The Foundation (cont.)
  • The “Cogito”
    • “I Exist” Is Necessarily True Every Time I Think It
    • Even To Be Deceived We Must Exist And Have Mental States
  • Other Works: “Cogito Ergo Sum”
    • “I Think Therefore I Am”
    • Certainty About The Content Of The Mind
      • We May Not Know If Thoughts And Experiences Are Accurate, But We Can Know We Are Having Such Thoughts And Experiences
  • Descartes’ Archimedian Point
ad