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The American Revolution. Causes and Course 1763 - 1783. Grievances – Beyond Taxes. All goods coming from Europe had to be shipped to England 1 st – they took taxes and gave the “middle man” a cut of the action/profits Colonial Industry could not compete w/England’s

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The american revolution

The American Revolution

Causes and Course

1763 - 1783


Grievances beyond taxes
Grievances – Beyond Taxes

  • All goods coming from Europe had to be shipped to England 1st – they took taxes and gave the “middle man” a cut of the action/profits

  • Colonial Industry could not compete w/England’s

    • Meaning – colonists couldn’t make products such as: beaver hats, woolen cloth


Currency
Currency

  • No banks in the colonies

    • No valid currency on this side of the Atlantic

      • Paid for manufactured goods in “hard” currency – Spanish coins

    • Leaving little money here

      • Many colonists forced to resort to a barter economy

      • The “currency” used was in the form of pitch, nails, butter, feathers and other like goods.



The boston gazette 1765
The Boston Gazette – Parliament passed a law forbidding both the money and colonial bankruptcy laws (1765)

  • “A colonist cannot make a button, a horseshoe, nor a hobnail, but some snooty ironmonger or respectable buttonmaker of Britain shall bawl and squall that his honor’s worship is most egregiously maltreated, injured, cheated, and robbed by the rascally American republicans.”


Veto power of the crown
Veto Power of the Crown – Parliament passed a law forbidding both the money and colonial bankruptcy laws

  • The “review board” for laws in England was the “Privy Council” – a group of the King’s advisors


Role of the first continental congress
Role of the First Continental Congress – Parliament passed a law forbidding both the money and colonial bankruptcy laws

  • Given the taxes, other grievances (Quebec Act included), the colonies reacted to the closing of the Port of Boston in uncharacteristic unity

  • 55 Reps – from 12 of the 13 colonies (GA stayed out) met in Philadelphia from September 5 – October 26, 1774

  • Their mission: consult with each other to come up with a plan


The choices
The Choices – Parliament passed a law forbidding both the money and colonial bankruptcy laws

  • The Moderate Position:

    • Create some kind of “home rule” system within the British Empire

      • Advantages: they would remain within the largest trade system in the world, they could begin to make their own decisions

      • Based on the system in Quebec granted by the Quebec Act

    • Champions: Ben Franklin, John Dickinson


  • The Radical Position – Parliament passed a law forbidding both the money and colonial bankruptcy laws

    • Break away and run things for ourselves

    • Champions: John Adams, J. Hancock, S. Adams, P. Henry, G. Washington


  • The Congress drew up many “dignified papers” – Parliament passed a law forbidding both the money and colonial bankruptcy laws

    • A Declaration of Rights

    • The Association

      • The Association called for – and was followed – for a complete boycott of Britain and British goods – non-importation, non-exportation, non-consumption

      • Violators were systematically tarred and feathered


Goals so far
Goals – So Far . . . – Parliament passed a law forbidding both the money and colonial bankruptcy laws

  • There was no systematic drive toward Revolution and independence

  • If grievances had been dealt with – or perhaps even addressed, there may not have been a revolt

  • If not – there was already a plan to reconvene the Congress in May 1775


British raids on colonial arms stores
British Raids on Colonial Arms Stores – Parliament passed a law forbidding both the money and colonial bankruptcy laws

  • In defiance of British authority, the colonists began to set up arms caches around eastern Massachusetts

  • September 1, 1774

    • General Gage sent troops into Cambridge to seize one such cache

      • What the British found (and seized) – 250 barrels of gunpowder


Portsmouth nh
Portsmouth, NH – Parliament passed a law forbidding both the money and colonial bankruptcy laws

  • On December 14, 1774, colonists under the command of Paul Revere, attacked the fortress of William and Mary in Portsmouth

  • The British only had 11 soldiers on duty at the fort

  • The colonial forces seized the fort and the weapons stored there

  • Among the equipment seized were several cannon, rifles, and powder, shells, and bullets. These were reportedly stored in … Concord, MA


Salem was next
Salem Was Next – Parliament passed a law forbidding both the money and colonial bankruptcy laws

  • On February 9, 1775 the British marched out to Salem to seize another major cache

  • They marched to the city along the route of present day 107 and were met at North Street by many people from the city

  • The British, not wanting a bloody confrontation, held their fire, and were “escorted” back to Boston, and were “serenaded” by the citizens of the city.


Meanwhile in virginia
Meanwhile – in Virginia – Parliament passed a law forbidding both the money and colonial bankruptcy laws

  • In March the House of Burgesses met to decide what the colony would direct its delegates to the Continental Congress to do – it was the occasion for Patrick Henry’s most famous speech – “Give me liberty, or give me death”

Patrick Henry, 1736 - 1799


Official british reaction
Official British Reaction – Parliament passed a law forbidding both the money and colonial bankruptcy laws

  • On February 9, 1775, the British Parliament passed a resolution declaring that Massachusetts was in a state of rebellion.

    • This would be extended to the rest of the colonies by April.

  • On April 14, 1775 Lord Dartmouth, Sec’y. Of State for the Colonies instructed Gen. Gage to arrest the leaders of the Massachusetts assembly and to use force to disarm the population.


April 19 1775 the shot heard round the world
April 19, 1775 – The Shot Heard Round the World – Parliament passed a law forbidding both the money and colonial bankruptcy laws

  • The beginning of the war was the result of the continued actions of the British Army to disarm and de-powder the rebel forces.

  • On the night of April 18, 600 British troops marched to Concord to seize John Hancock, Sam Adams, and the stolen munitions


Oops! – Parliament passed a law forbidding both the money and colonial bankruptcy laws

  • Since they prepared in the open, the unemployed dock workers could watch them get ready all day

  • The troops marched all night and arrived in Lexington between 5:00 and 6:00 the next morning.


What Happened Next?? – Parliament passed a law forbidding both the money and colonial bankruptcy laws


Now the colonies were at war
Now the Colonies Were at War. – Parliament passed a law forbidding both the money and colonial bankruptcy laws

  • There was no turning back from war, but the Congress hoped for a negotiated settlement.

  • They adopted a policy of defense only until a peace could be negotiated.


They did not stay on the defensive for very long
They did not stay on the defensive for very long – Parliament passed a law forbidding both the money and colonial bankruptcy laws

  • Under orders from Congress, colonial forces seized Fort Ticonderoga in New York

  • They also invaded Canada, trying to capture Quebec City and Montreal

    • They failed in both cases


Key battles that we need to worry about
Key Battles that We need to Worry About – Parliament passed a law forbidding both the money and colonial bankruptcy laws

  • Bunker Hill – Of the 2400 British regulars in the battle, 1054 were killed or wounded in the battle – to 441 Americans – 30 of whom were captured

  • Seige of Boston – after the battle, the British were trapped in Boston through the winter – they left on March 17, 1776




  • 1780 – 81 Moving toward Yorktown Regulars for the first time

  • The French arrived in force in 1780, and supplied money and arms to the American forces

  • In the decisive stroke of Yorktown, the French were the key


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