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Macro- evolutionary trends. macro- evolutionaire trends zijn lange termijn - patronen in de evolutie van fenotypen. Williston’s law. ‘parts in an organism tend toward reduction in number , with the fewer parts greatly specialized in function ’.

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Macro- evolutionary trends

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Macro evolutionary trends

Macro-evolutionary trends

macro-evolutionaire trends zijn lange termijn-patronen in de evolutie van fenotypen


Macro evolutionary trends

Williston’slaw

‘parts in an organism tend towardreduction in number, with the fewer parts greatlyspecialized in function’

Samuel Wendell Williston (1852-1918)


Macro evolutionary trends

Mantisshrimp - Hemisquillacaliforniensis


Macro evolutionary trends

second maxilla

antenule

pleopods

mandible

maxillipeds

antenna

walking legs

first maxilla

uropod


Macro evolutionary trends

Mososaurus


Macro evolutionary trends

incissors

canines

molars

Horse – Equuscaballus


Macro evolutionary trends

Acanthostega


Macro evolutionary trends

Ichthyostega


Macro evolutionary trends

Young et al. 2010. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 107: 3400-3405.


Macro evolutionary trends

Young et al. 2010. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 107: 3400-3405.


Macro evolutionary trends

fore arm lengthdecreases

leglengthincreases

leglengthincreases

arm lengthmuchless

Young et al. 2010. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 107: 3400-3405.


Macro evolutionary trends

Young et al. 2010. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 107: 3400-3405.


Macro evolutionary trends

Dollo’slaw

‘evolutionisirreversible; structures and functions once lost are not regained’

Louis Dollo (1857-1931)


Macro evolutionary trends

Phasma gigas

(macropterous)

Extasomapopa

(brachypterous)

Leprocaulinessp.

(apterous)

Whiting et al. 2003. Nature 421: 264-267.


Macro evolutionary trends

Whiting et al. 2003. Nature 421: 264-267.


Macro evolutionary trends

M2 present/absent

Lynx canadensis

Lynx lynx

Lynx thomasi

Lynx pardinus

Lynx issiodorensis

Lynx rufus

otherfelids

other carnivores

Werdelin 1987. J. Zool. 211: 259-266.


Macro evolutionary trends

Sigapatellanovazealandica

Calyptraeidae

Trochitacalyptraeformis

Crepidulanorrisiarum

Trochitacalyptraeformis

Calyptraeaconica

Crucibulumradiatum

Bostrycapulusaculeatus

Collin & Cipraini 2003. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 270: 2551-2555.


Macro evolutionary trends

Coiled / uncoiled

Trochita(coiled)

Crepidula(uncoiled)

Zegalerus and

Sigapatella(coiled)

20-100My

Collin & Cipraini 2003. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 270: 2551-2555.


Macro evolutionary trends

Cope’srule

‘body size of organisms in a particularevolutionarylineage tend to increase’

Edgar DrinkerCope (1840-1897)


Macro evolutionary trends

  • Cope’srule

    • Empiricalevidence


Macro evolutionary trends

Dinosaurs

N=65 species pairs

20

10

Frequency

+25.7%

0

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Size increase

Hone et al. 2005. J. Evol. Biol. 18: 587-595.


Macro evolutionary trends

North American fossilmammals, lateCretaceous-latePaleocene

N=779 species pairs

200

150

Number of pairs

100

+9.1%

50

0

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

5

Change in mass (ln g)

Alroy 1998. Science 280: 731-734.


Macro evolutionary trends

Extantmammals

N=3253 species

60

all mammals

gradualevolution

50

all mammals

40

30

density

20

Alroy 1998

fossilmammals

primates

10

carnivores

-10

-8

-6

4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

10

size difference (%)

Monroe & Bokma 2010. J. Evol. Biol. 23: 2017-2021.


Macro evolutionary trends

Mesozoicbirds

log10(femurlength)

Age (Mya)

Hone et al. 2008. J. Evol. Biol. 21: 618-624.


Macro evolutionary trends

Hone et al. 2008. J. Evol. Biol. 21: 618-624.


Macro evolutionary trends

Pygostylia

Ornithothoraces

Eniantiornithes

Ornithuromorpha

log10(femurlength)

Age (Mya)

Hone et al. 2008. J. Evol. Biol. 21: 618-624.


Macro evolutionary trends

Butler & Goswami 2008. J. Evol. Biol. 21: 1673-1681.


Macro evolutionary trends

  • Cope’srule

    • Empiricalevidence

    • Explanations

      • Selection for larger body size


Macro evolutionary trends

betterprey capture ability

betterdefensiveabilities

greater reproductive success

larger body size

increasedhomeostasis

increasedheatregulation

per unit volume

increasedcompetitiveability

increased intelligence


Macro evolutionary trends

0.25

91 estimates, 23 species

0.2

body size

0.15

frequency

0.1

0.05

0

-1.15

-1

-0.5

0

-0.5

1

1.5

linearselection gradient

Kingsolver J.G. & Pfennig D.W. 2004. Evolution 58: 1608-1623.


Macro evolutionary trends

  • Cope’srule

    • Empiricalevidence

    • Explanations

      • Selection for larger body size

      • Passive drift awayfrom a lowerlimit


Macro evolutionary trends

Distribution of clades after 50 units

Cushioningboundary

time

size

size

passive system

driven system

P(increase)>P(decrease)


Macro evolutionary trends

  • Cope’srule

    • Empiricalevidence

    • Explanations

      • Selection for larger body size

      • Passive drift awayfrom a lowerlimit

      • Psychological artefact


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