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Macro- evolutionary trends. macro- evolutionaire trends zijn lange termijn - patronen in de evolutie van fenotypen. Williston’s law. ‘parts in an organism tend toward reduction in number , with the fewer parts greatly specialized in function ’.

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slide1

Macro-evolutionary trends

macro-evolutionaire trends zijn lange termijn-patronen in de evolutie van fenotypen

slide2

Williston’slaw

‘parts in an organism tend towardreduction in number, with the fewer parts greatlyspecialized in function’

Samuel Wendell Williston (1852-1918)

slide4

second maxilla

antenule

pleopods

mandible

maxillipeds

antenna

walking legs

first maxilla

uropod

slide6

incissors

canines

molars

Horse – Equuscaballus

slide11

fore arm lengthdecreases

leglengthincreases

leglengthincreases

arm lengthmuchless

Young et al. 2010. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 107: 3400-3405.

slide13

Dollo’slaw

‘evolutionisirreversible; structures and functions once lost are not regained’

Louis Dollo (1857-1931)

slide14

Phasma gigas

(macropterous)

Extasomapopa

(brachypterous)

Leprocaulinessp.

(apterous)

Whiting et al. 2003. Nature 421: 264-267.

slide16

M2 present/absent

Lynx canadensis

Lynx lynx

Lynx thomasi

Lynx pardinus

Lynx issiodorensis

Lynx rufus

otherfelids

other carnivores

Werdelin 1987. J. Zool. 211: 259-266.

slide17

Sigapatellanovazealandica

Calyptraeidae

Trochitacalyptraeformis

Crepidulanorrisiarum

Trochitacalyptraeformis

Calyptraeaconica

Crucibulumradiatum

Bostrycapulusaculeatus

Collin & Cipraini 2003. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 270: 2551-2555.

slide18

Coiled / uncoiled

Trochita(coiled)

Crepidula(uncoiled)

Zegalerus and

Sigapatella(coiled)

20-100My

Collin & Cipraini 2003. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 270: 2551-2555.

slide19

Cope’srule

‘body size of organisms in a particularevolutionarylineage tend to increase’

Edgar DrinkerCope (1840-1897)

slide20

Cope’srule

    • Empiricalevidence
slide21

Dinosaurs

N=65 species pairs

20

10

Frequency

+25.7%

0

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Size increase

Hone et al. 2005. J. Evol. Biol. 18: 587-595.

slide22

North American fossilmammals, lateCretaceous-latePaleocene

N=779 species pairs

200

150

Number of pairs

100

+9.1%

50

0

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

5

Change in mass (ln g)

Alroy 1998. Science 280: 731-734.

slide23

Extantmammals

N=3253 species

60

all mammals

gradualevolution

50

all mammals

40

30

density

20

Alroy 1998

fossilmammals

primates

10

carnivores

-10

-8

-6

4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

10

size difference (%)

Monroe & Bokma 2010. J. Evol. Biol. 23: 2017-2021.

slide24

Mesozoicbirds

log10(femurlength)

Age (Mya)

Hone et al. 2008. J. Evol. Biol. 21: 618-624.

slide26

Pygostylia

Ornithothoraces

Eniantiornithes

Ornithuromorpha

log10(femurlength)

Age (Mya)

Hone et al. 2008. J. Evol. Biol. 21: 618-624.

slide28

Cope’srule

    • Empiricalevidence
    • Explanations
      • Selection for larger body size
slide29

betterprey capture ability

betterdefensiveabilities

greater reproductive success

larger body size

increasedhomeostasis

increasedheatregulation

per unit volume

increasedcompetitiveability

increased intelligence

slide30

0.25

91 estimates, 23 species

0.2

body size

0.15

frequency

0.1

0.05

0

-1.15

-1

-0.5

0

-0.5

1

1.5

linearselection gradient

Kingsolver J.G. & Pfennig D.W. 2004. Evolution 58: 1608-1623.

slide31

Cope’srule

    • Empiricalevidence
    • Explanations
      • Selection for larger body size
      • Passive drift awayfrom a lowerlimit
slide32

Distribution of clades after 50 units

Cushioningboundary

time

size

size

passive system

driven system

P(increase)>P(decrease)

slide33

Cope’srule

    • Empiricalevidence
    • Explanations
      • Selection for larger body size
      • Passive drift awayfrom a lowerlimit
      • Psychological artefact
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