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Macro- evolutionary trends. macro- evolutionaire trends zijn lange termijn - patronen in de evolutie van fenotypen. Williston’s law. ‘parts in an organism tend toward reduction in number , with the fewer parts greatly specialized in function ’.

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Macro- evolutionary trends

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Macro-evolutionary trends

macro-evolutionaire trends zijn lange termijn-patronen in de evolutie van fenotypen


Williston’slaw

‘parts in an organism tend towardreduction in number, with the fewer parts greatlyspecialized in function’

Samuel Wendell Williston (1852-1918)


Mantisshrimp - Hemisquillacaliforniensis


second maxilla

antenule

pleopods

mandible

maxillipeds

antenna

walking legs

first maxilla

uropod


Mososaurus


incissors

canines

molars

Horse – Equuscaballus


Acanthostega


Ichthyostega


Young et al. 2010. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 107: 3400-3405.


Young et al. 2010. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 107: 3400-3405.


fore arm lengthdecreases

leglengthincreases

leglengthincreases

arm lengthmuchless

Young et al. 2010. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 107: 3400-3405.


Young et al. 2010. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 107: 3400-3405.


Dollo’slaw

‘evolutionisirreversible; structures and functions once lost are not regained’

Louis Dollo (1857-1931)


Phasma gigas

(macropterous)

Extasomapopa

(brachypterous)

Leprocaulinessp.

(apterous)

Whiting et al. 2003. Nature 421: 264-267.


Whiting et al. 2003. Nature 421: 264-267.


M2 present/absent

Lynx canadensis

Lynx lynx

Lynx thomasi

Lynx pardinus

Lynx issiodorensis

Lynx rufus

otherfelids

other carnivores

Werdelin 1987. J. Zool. 211: 259-266.


Sigapatellanovazealandica

Calyptraeidae

Trochitacalyptraeformis

Crepidulanorrisiarum

Trochitacalyptraeformis

Calyptraeaconica

Crucibulumradiatum

Bostrycapulusaculeatus

Collin & Cipraini 2003. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 270: 2551-2555.


Coiled / uncoiled

Trochita(coiled)

Crepidula(uncoiled)

Zegalerus and

Sigapatella(coiled)

20-100My

Collin & Cipraini 2003. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 270: 2551-2555.


Cope’srule

‘body size of organisms in a particularevolutionarylineage tend to increase’

Edgar DrinkerCope (1840-1897)


  • Cope’srule

    • Empiricalevidence


Dinosaurs

N=65 species pairs

20

10

Frequency

+25.7%

0

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Size increase

Hone et al. 2005. J. Evol. Biol. 18: 587-595.


North American fossilmammals, lateCretaceous-latePaleocene

N=779 species pairs

200

150

Number of pairs

100

+9.1%

50

0

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

5

Change in mass (ln g)

Alroy 1998. Science 280: 731-734.


Extantmammals

N=3253 species

60

all mammals

gradualevolution

50

all mammals

40

30

density

20

Alroy 1998

fossilmammals

primates

10

carnivores

-10

-8

-6

4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

10

size difference (%)

Monroe & Bokma 2010. J. Evol. Biol. 23: 2017-2021.


Mesozoicbirds

log10(femurlength)

Age (Mya)

Hone et al. 2008. J. Evol. Biol. 21: 618-624.


Hone et al. 2008. J. Evol. Biol. 21: 618-624.


Pygostylia

Ornithothoraces

Eniantiornithes

Ornithuromorpha

log10(femurlength)

Age (Mya)

Hone et al. 2008. J. Evol. Biol. 21: 618-624.


Butler & Goswami 2008. J. Evol. Biol. 21: 1673-1681.


  • Cope’srule

    • Empiricalevidence

    • Explanations

      • Selection for larger body size


betterprey capture ability

betterdefensiveabilities

greater reproductive success

larger body size

increasedhomeostasis

increasedheatregulation

per unit volume

increasedcompetitiveability

increased intelligence


0.25

91 estimates, 23 species

0.2

body size

0.15

frequency

0.1

0.05

0

-1.15

-1

-0.5

0

-0.5

1

1.5

linearselection gradient

Kingsolver J.G. & Pfennig D.W. 2004. Evolution 58: 1608-1623.


  • Cope’srule

    • Empiricalevidence

    • Explanations

      • Selection for larger body size

      • Passive drift awayfrom a lowerlimit


Distribution of clades after 50 units

Cushioningboundary

time

size

size

passive system

driven system

P(increase)>P(decrease)


  • Cope’srule

    • Empiricalevidence

    • Explanations

      • Selection for larger body size

      • Passive drift awayfrom a lowerlimit

      • Psychological artefact


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