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Interaction Model. User Perspective. User-centered design sounds good and as the right thing to do But What does it mean to design something from a users’ perspective H ow do users view the interface. Norman’s Activity Model.

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Presentation Transcript
user perspective
User Perspective
  • User-centered design sounds good and as the right thing to do
  • But
  • What does it mean to design something from a users’ perspective
  • How do users view the interface
norman s activity model
Norman’s Activity Model
  • Don Norman (1988) proposed that users view the user-interface as a mean to an end
  • The interface, according to Norman’s model provides users with the mechanisms to achieve something that they desire or want
  • This mechanism includes 2 basic elements of the interface
    • Interface – How it communicates to user what to do or what can be done
    • Interaction – Describes what users are expected to do
user interface design
User Interface Design
  • For example
    • The interface includes:
      • The blue icon
      • Message
      • Labeled button
    • The interaction with the error message box below consist of:
      • Reading the message
      • Clicking on the close button
norman s action model
Norman’s Action Model
  • Norman’s activity model deals with the interaction
  • Norman suggested that people’s action includes 3 components:
    • An Intention
    • An action
    • An Evaluation
  • Actions are performed within a context of a higher level goal
example removing the error message
Example – removing The Error Message
  • To remove the error message (Goal) the user will
    • Express an intent to close the message
    • Click on the “Close” button
    • Check to make sure that the dialog box is indeed closed
activity model
Activity Model

Goal

Gulf of Execution

Gulf of Evaluation

External World

gulf of execution
Gulf of Execution
  • Deals with the gap between what the user wants to do – Intention and the action needed to implement the intent
    • How do I start my car
    • How do I save a document
    • How do I set the time on my car clock
  • A gap exists when users have difficulties determining how to act
gulf of evaluation
Gulf of Evaluation
  • Deals with the gap between perception and interpretation
    • Did my car started?
    • Was my document saved?
    • Am I controlling the time on my car clock?
  • A gap exists when users have difficulties Assessing the state of their system - determining what happened in the real world
implementing the action
Implementing the Action
  • For users to close the gaps they will need to
  • Execution
    • Form an intention
    • Plan out the action flow
    • Execute the plan
  • Evaluation
    • Perceive the result
    • Interpret the result
    • Evaluate the result
closing the gaps
Closing the Gaps

Goal

Intention

Comparison

Detailed Plan

Interpretation

Execution

Perception

External World

example execution
Example - Execution
  • Forming a Goal
    • I want to inform my team about a meeting I had.
  • Intention to Act
    • I have outlook open on my desktop. I will set up a meeting for the team and myself. I will open a meeting invitation
  • Planning the Action
    • I need to move the cursor to the meeting icon and click on it
  • Executing the Action
    • I move the cursor to the meeting icon and I click on it
example evaluation
Example - Evaluation
  • Feedback from the Action
    • A meeting set up form is opened
  • Interpret the Feedback
    • I am now able able to specify a meeting and invite Sean
  • Evaluate the Outcome
    • Positive – I’m able to start scheduling a meeting. No further action is needed
    • Negative – The form I opened is for scheduling an appointment not a meeting
    • The Action Cycle is either repeated or a new goal is formed
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