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Chapter 14 Promotion and Pricing Strategies. Learning Goals. Describe pushing and pulling promotional strategies. Discuss the major ethical issues involved in promotion. Outline the different types of pricing strategies.

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Chapter 14 Promotion and Pricing Strategies

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Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

Chapter 14

Promotion and Pricing Strategies

Learning Goals

Describe pushing and pulling promotional strategies.

Discuss the major ethical issues involved in promotion.

Outline the different types of pricing strategies.

Discuss how firms set prices in the marketplace, and describe the four alter-native pricing strategies.

Discuss consumer perceptions of price.

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Discuss how integrated marketing communications relates to a firm’s overall promotion strategy.

Explain promotional mix and outline the objectives of promotion.

Summarize the different types of advertising and advertising media.

Outline the roles of sales promotion, personal selling, and public relations.

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Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • PromotionThe function of informing, persuading, and influencing a purchase decision.

  • Integrated marketing communications (IMC)Coordination of all promotional activities—media advertising, direct mail, personal selling, sales promotion, and public relations—to produce a unified customer-focused message.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS

  • • Must take a broad view and plan for all form of customer contact.

  • • Create unified personality and message for the good, service, or brand.

  • • Elements include personal selling, advertising, sales promotion, publicity, and public relations.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • THE PROMOTIONAL MIX

  • Promotional mix Combination of personal and nonpersonal selling techniques designed to achieve promotional objectives.

  • Personal selling Interpersonal promotional process involving a seller’s face-to-face presentation to a prospective buyer.

  • • Nonpersonal selling Advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing, and public relations.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • Objectives of Promotional Strategy


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • Providing Information

  • • Major portion of U.S. advertising provides information about a product.

  • Differentiating a Product

  • • Communicate to buyers meaningful distinctions about the attributes, price, quality, or use of a good or service.

  • Increasing Sales

  • • Most common objective of a promotional strategy.

  • Stabilizing Sales

  • • Stable sales evens out the production cycle, reduces some management and production costs, and simplifies financial, purchasing, and marketing planning.

  • Accentuating the Product’s Value

  • • Explaining hidden benefits of ownership.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • Promotional Planning

  • • Product placement Marketers pay placement fees to have their products showcased in various media, ranging from newspapers and magazines to television and movies.

  • • Guerilla marketing Innovative, low-cost marketing efforts designed to get consumers’ attention in unusual ways.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • ADVERTISING

  • Advertising Paid nonpersonal communication delivered through various media and designed to inform, persuade, or remind members of a particular audience.

  • • Consumers receive 3,500 to 5,000 marketing messages each day.

  • • Television networks earn $22 billion annually from advertising.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • • In U.S., automotive, retail, and communications companies spend nearly $4 billion annually on advertising.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • Types of Advertising

  • • Product advertising Messages designed to sell a particular good or service.

  • • Institutional advertising Messages that promote concepts, ideas, philosophies, or goodwill for industries, companies, organizations, or government entities.

  • • Cause advertising Form of institutional messaging that promotes a specific viewpoint on a public issue as a way to influence public opinion and the legislative process.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • Advertising and the Product Life Cycle

  • • Informative advertising Used to build initial demand for a product in the introductory phase of the product life cycle.

  • • Persuasive advertisingAttempts to improve the competitive status of a product, institution, or concept, usually in the growth and maturity stages of the product life cycle.

  • • Comparative advertising Compares products directly with their competitors either by name or by inference.

  • • Reminder-oriented advertising Appears in the late maturity or decline stages of the product life cycle to maintain awareness of the importance and usefulness of a product.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • Advertising Media

  • • All media offer advantages and disadvantages


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • Television

  • • Easiest way to reach a large number of consumers.

  • • Variety of channels on cable and satellite networks allows advertisers to target specialized markets and demographics.

  • • Most expensive advertising medium.

  • • 30 second prime time network spots can range from $100,000 to $500,000.

  • Newspapers

  • • Dominate local advertising.

  • • Easy to coordinate with other promotional efforts.

  • • Relatively short life span.

  • Radio

  • • Average household owns five radios.

  • • Commuters in cars are a captive audience.

  • • Satellite radio offers new opportunities.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • Magazines

  • • Consumer publications and trade journals.

  • • May be able to customize message for different areas of the country.

  • Direct Mail

  • • Average American receives 550 pieces annually, including 100 catalogs.

  • • High per person cost, but can be carefully targeted and highly effective.

  • • Direct Marketing Association helps marketers combat negative attitudes by offering its members guidelines on ethical business practices.

  • Outdoor Advertising

  • • $3.2 billion annually, majority for billboards.

  • • Requires brief messages.

  • • Can be opposed by preservation and conservation groups.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • Online and Interactive Advertising

  • • Experts predict sales from online advertising will double by 2010.

  • • Viral advertising Creates a message that is novel or entertaining enough for consumers to forward it to others, spreading it like a virus.

  • • Spreading the word costs the advertiser nothing.

  • • Not all online advertising is well received.

  • • Many consumers resent the intrusion of pop-up ads that suddenly appear on their computer screen.

  • Sponsorship

  • • Providing funds for a sporting or cultural event in exchange for a direct association with the event.

  • • Benefits: Exposure to target audience and association with image of the event.

  • Other Media Options

  • • Marketers look for novel ways to reach customers.

  • • Examples: infomercials, ATM receipts, directory advertising.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • SALES PROMOTION

  • Sales promotion Nonpersonal marketing activities other than advertising, personal selling, and public relations that stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • Consumer-Oriented Promotions

  • Premiums, Coupons, Rebates, Samples

  • • Two of every five promotion dollars are spent on premiums, items given free or at reduced price with the purchase of another product.

  • • Coupons attract new customers but focus on price rather than brand loyalty.

  • • Rebates increase purchase rates, promote multiple purchases, and reward product users.

  • • Three of every four consumers who receive a sample will try it.

  • Games, Contest, and Sweepstakes

  • • Often used to introduce new goods and attract new customers.

  • • Subject to legal restrictions.

  • Specialty Advertising

  • • Gift of useful merchandise carrying the name, logo, or slogan of an organization.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • Trade-Oriented Promotions

  • • Sales promotion geared to marketing intermediaries rather than to consumers.

  • •  Encourage retailers in several ways:

  • • To stock new products.

  • • To continue carrying existing ones.

  • • To promote both new and existing products effectively to consumers.

  • • Point-of-purchase (POP) advertising Displays or demonstrations that promote products when and where consumers buy them, such as in retail stores.

  • • Promote goods and services at trade shows.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • PERSONAL SELLING

  • • A person-to-person promotional presentation to a potential buyer.

  • • Usually used under four conditions:

  • • Customers are relatively few in number and geographically concentrated.

  • • The product is technically complex, involves trade-ins, and requires special handling.

  • • The product carries a relatively high price.

  • • It moves through direct-distribution channels.

  • • Example: Selling to the government or militarty.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • Sales Tasks

  • • All involve assisting customers in some way.

  • Order Processing

  • • Identifying customer needs, pointing out merchandise to meet them, and processing the order.

  • Creative Selling

  • • Promoting a good or service whose benefits are not readily apparent or whose purchase decision requires a close analysis of alternatives.

  • Missionary Selling

  • • Representative promotes goodwill for a company or provides technical or operational assistance to the customer.

  • Telemarketing

  • • Personal selling conducted by telephone; regulated by the Federal Trade Commission’s 1996 Telemarketing Sales Rule.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • The Sales Process


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • The Sales Process

  • • A good salesperson varies the sales process based on customers’ needs and responses.

  • Prospecting, Qualifying, and Approaching

  • • Prospecting Identifying potential customers.

  • • Qualifying Identifying potential customers who have the financial ability and authority to buy.

  • • Approaching Make careful preparations, analyzing available data about a prospective customer’s product lines and other pertinent information before making the initial contact.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • The Sales Process

  • • A good salesperson varies the sales process based on customers’ needs and responses.

  • Presentation and Demonstration

  • • Presentation Salespeople communicate promotional messages. They may describe the major features of their products, highlight the advantages, and cite examples of satisfied consumers.

  • • Demonstration Reinforces the message that the salesperson has been communicating.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • The Sales Process

  • • A good salesperson varies the sales process based on customers’ needs and responses.

  • Handling Objections

  • • Use objections as an opportunity to answer questions and explain how the product will benefit the customer.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • The Sales Process

  • • A good salesperson varies the sales process based on customers’ needs and responses.

  • Closing

  • • The time at which the salesperson actually asks the prospect to buy.

  • • Even if the sale is not made, the salesperson should regard the interaction as the beginning of a potential relationship.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • The Sales Process

  • • A good salesperson varies the sales process based on customers’ needs and responses.

  • Follow-Up

  • • An important part of building a long-lasting relationship.

  • • May determine whether the customer will make another purchase.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • Public Relations

  • Public relations Public organization’s communications and relationships with its various audience.

  • • Helps a firm establish awareness of goods and services and builds a positive image of them.

  • Publicity

  • Publicity Stimulation of demand for a good, service, place, idea, person, or organization by disseminating news or obtaining favorable unpaid media presentations.

  • • Good publicity can promote a firm’s positive image

  • • Negative publicity can cause problems.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY

  • Pushing and Pulling Strategies

  • • Pushing strategy Relies on personal selling to market an item to wholesalers and retailers in a company’s distribution channels.

  • • Companies promote the product to members of the marketing channel, not to end users.

  • • Pulling strategy Promote a product by generating consumer demand for it, primarily through advertising and sales promotion appeals.

  • • Potential buyers will request that their suppliers—retailers or local distributors—carry the product, thereby pulling it through the distribution channel.

  • • Most marketing situations require combinations of pushing and pulling strategies, although the primary emphasis can vary.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • ETHICS IN PROMOTION

  • Puffery and Deception

  • • Puffery Exaggeration about the benefits or superiority of a product.

  • • Legal because it doesn’t guarantee anything but raises ethical questions.

  • • May ultimately undermine the credibility of a firm’s marketing messages.

  • • Deception Deliberately making promises that are untrue, such as guaranteed weight loss in five days, get-rich-quick schemes for would-be entrepreneurs, or promised return on investments.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • Promotion to Children and Teens

  • • Children and teens have enormous purchasing power.

  • • Children cannot analyze advertising messages.

  • • Can be socially responsible (e.g., healthy products).

  • Promotion in Public Schools and on College Campuses

  • • Schools earn income from in-school advertising, but it is generating backlash.

  • • College students have $122 billion in buying power.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • PRICING OBJECTIVES IN THE MARKETING MIX

  • Price Exchange value of a good or service.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • Profitability Objectives

  • • Most common objective.

  • • Some maximize profits by reducing costs rather than raising costs.

  • • Sometimes maintain price while reducing package size or amount of product.

  • Volume Objectives

  • • Bases pricing decisions on market share goals.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • Pricing to Meet Competition

  • • Meeting competitors’ price so price becomes a nonissue in the buying decision.

  • • Competitors cannot legally work together to set prices.

  • • Competition can result in a price war.

  • Prestige Objectives

  • • Establishing a relatively high price to develop and maintain an image of quality and exclusiveness.

  • • Recognition of the role of price in communicating an overall image for the firm and its products.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • PRICING STRATEGIES

  • • Pricing is influenced by people in different areas of a company.

  • Price Determination in Practice

  • Cost-based pricing Adding a percentage (markup) to the base cost of a product to cover overhead costs and generate profits.

  • • Actual markup used varies by such factors as brand image and type of store.

  • • Example: Typical clothing markup by retailers is double the wholesaler price.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • Breakeven Analysis

  • Breakeven analysis Pricing technique used to determine the minimum sales volume a product must generate at a certain price level to cover all costs.

  • Finding the Breakeven Point


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • Breakeven Analysis

  • Breakeven analysis Pricing technique used to determine the minimum sales volume a product must generate at a certain price level to cover all costs.

  • Finding the Breakeven Point


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • Breakeven Analysis

  • Breakeven analysis Pricing technique used to determine the minimum sales volume a product must generate at a certain price level to cover all costs.

  • Finding the Breakeven Point


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • Alternative Pricing Strategies

  • Skimming Pricing

  • • Setting an intentionally high price relative to the prices of competing products.

  • • Helps marketers set a price that distinguishes a firm’s high-end product from those of competitors.

  • • Helps a firm recover its product development costs before competitors enter the field.

  • Penetration Pricing

  • • Setting a low price as a major marketing weapon.

  • • Often used with new products.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • Everyday Low Pricing and Discount Pricing

  • • ELP Maintaining continuous low prices rather than relying on short-term price-cutting tactics such as cents-off coupons, rebates, and special sales.

  • • Discount pricing Attracting customers by dropping prices for a set period of time.

  • • Helps a firm recover its product development costs before competitors enter the field.

  • Competitive Pricing

  • • Reducing the emphasis on price competition by matching other firms’ prices.

  • • Concentrate marketing efforts on the product, distribution, and promotional elements of the marketing mix.


Chapter 14 promotion and pricing strategies

  • CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS OF PRICE

  • Price-Quality Relationships

  • • Consumers’ perceptions of quality closely tied to price.

  • • High price = prestige and higher quality.

  • • Low price = less prestige and lower quality.

  • Odd Pricing

  • • Setting prices in uneven amounts or amounts that sound less than they really are.

  • • Example: $1.99 or $299.

  • • Also used as a signal a product is on sale.


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