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Modularity and Product Architecting. ME 546 - Designing Product Families - IE 546. Timothy W. Simpson Professor of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering and Engineering Design The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802 phone: (814) 863-7136 email: [email protected]

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Slide1 l.jpg

Modularity andProduct Architecting

ME 546 - Designing Product Families - IE 546

Timothy W. Simpson

Professor of Mechanical & Industrial

Engineering and Engineering Design

The Pennsylvania State University

University Park, PA 16802

phone: (814) 863-7136

email: [email protected]

http://www.mne.psu.edu/simpson/courses/me546

PENNSTATE

© T. W. SIMPSON


Recall pine s five steps to mass customization l.jpg

Recall: Pine’s Five Steps to Mass Customization

Sources:

  • Pine, B. J., II, 1993, "Mass Customizing Products and Services," Planning Review, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 6(8).

  • Pine, B. J., II, 1993, Mass Customization: The New Frontier in Business Competition, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA.

Provide Quick

Response

5

Modularize

4

Degree of Market Turbulence

3

Create Point-of-Delivery Customization

2

Embed Customizability

1

Customize Services

Degree of Organizational Turbulence


Overview of today s lecture l.jpg

Overview of Today’s Lecture

  • MODULARITY IS THE KEY enabler for successful product family design and product platforms.

  • What is product architecture? What types exist?

  • What is modular design? What is its role in product family and product platform design?

  • What is an interface? What is a module?

  • What are the different types of modularity?

  • What is a function? What is a function structure?


Architecture l.jpg

Architecture

Source - www.coolhouseplans.com

Beach

Contemporary


System architecture l.jpg

System Boundary

System Architecture

Slide adapted from O. de Weck & T. Simpson, MIT ESD 39s


Architecture definition l.jpg

Architecture: Definition

  • Architecture

    • The embodiment of concept, and the allocation of physical/informational function (process) to elements of form (objects) and definition of the structural interfaces among the objects

  • Consists of:

    • Function

    • Related by Concept

    • To Form

Form

Function

Concept

Slide adapted from O. de Weck & T. Simpson, MIT ESD 39s


Function concept form l.jpg

Form

raised

Function-Concept-Form

Function: provide for 1) meeting place2) visible main speaker3) processionsConcept:church (Basilica)

Function: provide for 1) meeting place2) visible large “cast”Concept:amphitheater

Function: provide for1) meeting place2) each participant visible to othersConcept: meeting room

Form Often Follows Function

Slide adapted from O. de Weck & T. Simpson, MIT ESD 39s


Product architecture l.jpg

Product Architecture

  • Product architecture is:

    • “the scheme by which the function of a product is allocated to physical components” (Ulrich, 1995)

  • Purpose of product architecture is:

    • “to define the basic physical building blocks of the product in terms of what they do and what their interfaces are to the rest of the device” (Ulrich & Eppinger, 2000)

  • More formally, a product architecture is (Ulrich, 1995):

    • the arrangement of functionalelements

    • the mapping of functionalelements to physical components

    • the specification of the interfaces among physical components

Sources:

  • Ulrich, K., 1995, "The Role of Product Architecture in the Manufacturing Firm," Research Policy, Vol. 24(3), pp. 419-440.

  • Ulrich, K. T. and Eppinger, S. D., 2000, Product Design and Development (2nd Ed.), McGraw-Hill, NY, NY.


Example coffee maker l.jpg

Store

Water

Heat

Water

Heat

Coffee

Store

Grounds

Mix Coffee

and Water

Store

Coffee

Shut-off

Heater

Grind

Beans

Example: Coffee Maker

Overall

Function

Brew

Coffee

Electricity

Water

Supporting

Sub-Functions

Ground

Coffee

Coffee

Coffee

Beans

Auxiliary

Functions


How to create a function structure l.jpg

How to Create a Function Structure

1.Formulate the overall product function

2.Split up overall function into sub-functions

3.Determine simplified functions structure

4.Identify material, energy, and information/signal flows

5.Add secondary/auxiliary functions and flows

Source: Pahl, G. and Beitz, W., 1996, Engineering Design: A Systematic Approach (2nd Rev. Ed.), Springer-Verlag, New York.


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Morphological Matrix

  • Search for solution principles to fulfill sub-functions

    • Identify as many solutions for each sub-function and auxiliary functions as possible

  • Combine solutions to embody physical concepts

    • Use morphological matrix to identify combinations of solutions

    • Each combination of solutions will fulfill overall function

  • Use expertise and heuristics to eliminate infeasible solution combinations

Morphological Matrix [PB96]


Morphological matrix for coffee maker l.jpg

Store

Coffee

· · ·

· · ·

· · ·

S11

S12

S1j

S1m

Mix Coffee

and Water

Filter

Osmosis

Dissolve

Ionize

· · ·

· · ·

Stir

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

Heat

Coffee

Brew

Coffee

Heat

Water

· · ·

· · ·

· · ·

Si1

Si2

Sij

Sim

·

·

·

·

·

·

Store

Water

Store

Grounds

· · ·

· · ·

· · ·

Sn1

Sn2

Snj

Snm

Morphological Matrix for Coffee Maker


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Modular and Integral Architectures Defined

  • After we identify solutions for each function, we can combine them to identify modules in the architecture

  • Modularity is defined as (Ulrich and Tung, 1991):

    1.there is a one-to-one correspondence between functional elements and physical structures ...AND...

    2.unintended interactions between modules are minimized (i.e., component interfaces are de-coupled).

    The opposite of modular is referred to as integral

    A modular architecture (ideally) has:

    • One physical component/function; de-coupled interfaces

      while an integral architecture has:

    • Coupled interfaces; many functions/physical component


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Coupled vs. Uncoupled Designs

  • Axiom: Maintain the interdependence of functional requirements (N. P. Suh, Principles of Design, 1990)

Coupled

Design

Uncoupled

Design

Reference:

Billy Fredriksson, Holistic systems engineering in product development, Griffin , Saab-Scania, Nov. 1994/95

Slide adapted from O. de Weck & T. Simpson, MIT ESD 39s


Types of modularity slot l.jpg

Types of Modularity: Slot

  • In a slot architecture, each module

    has a different interface with the

    overall system.

  • Why different interfaces?

    • So that various components cannot be interchanged

  • Examples:

    • SCSI, Ethernet, and parallel ports on laptop


Types of modularity bus l.jpg

Types of Modularity: Bus

  • In a bus architecture, there is a

    common bus to which modules

    connect via the same interface.

  • What are the advantages of this type of modularity?

  • Examples:

    • Modem and Internet cards on laptop; CD and disk drive


Types of modularity sectional l.jpg

Types of Modularity: Sectional

  • In a sectional architecture, all interfaces are the same type but there is no single element to which modules attach.

  • What are advantages and disadvantages of a sectional approach?

  • Examples:

    • Legos

Using a sectional architecture, the assembly is built up by connecting the modules to each other via identical interfaces.


Sectional modularity at nippondenso l.jpg

Sectional Modularity at Nippondenso

  • Nippondenso can make 288 different panel meters from variations of 8 modules (17 different parts)

© T. W. SIMPSON, 2001


Products modules and attributes l.jpg

Products, Modules, and Attributes

Products

Modules

Module

Attributes

A1

B1

Product 1

Types of

Modules:

Common

A1

Variant

C1,C2

Unique

B1, B2, D1

C1

D1

Different

products

A1

B2

Product 2

C2


Example b d versapack toolkit l.jpg

Example: B&D Versapack® Toolkit

Common

Variant

Variant

Unique


Creating a module based product family l.jpg

Creating a Module-Based Product Family

1.Decompose products into their representative functions

2.Develop modules with one-to-one (or many-to-one) correspondence with functions

3.Group common functional modules into a common product platform

}

4.Standardize interfaces to facilitate addition, removal, and substitution of modules

Product

Platform

Common

Functions

Specific

Function 1

Specific

Function 2

Specific

Function k

{

Product

Family

Derivative

Product 1

Derivative

Product 2

Derivative

Product k


Example braun family of coffee makers l.jpg

Adjustable

Heater

Water

Filter

Auto Shut-

off, Clock

Basic

Model

Thermos

Karafe

Frothing

Attachment

KF130

KF145

KF170

KF180

KF185

KF190

Example: Braun Family of Coffee Makers

Electricity

Common

Function

Brew

Coffee

Store

Water

Heat

Water

Heat

Coffee

Water

Ground

Coffee

Store

Grounds

Mix Coffee

and Water

Store

Coffee

Coffee


Developing modular architectures l.jpg

Developing Modular Architectures

  • What are some rules of thumb you, as an engineer, might follow to develop a modular product architecture?


Some heuristics for module development l.jpg

Some Heuristics for Module Development

  • Stone, et al. (1998) developed a set of three heuristics to identify product modules from a function structure:

    • Dominant Flow:

      • examines flows through a function structure, following flows until they either exit from the system or are transformed

      • the sub-functions through which these flows are traced define a module

    • Branching Flows:

      • examines flows that branch into or converge from parallel function chains

      • each branch of a flow can become a module; modules interface at point where flow branches or converges

    • Conversion-Transmission:

      • examines flows that are converted from one type to another

      • develop a module which converts an energy or material flow into another form and then transmits it


Some heuristics for module development25 l.jpg

Some Heuristics for Module Development

  • Zamirowski and Otto (1999) define two heuristics to aid in module identification within a product family:

    • Shared Functions:

      • functional groups which share similar flows and functions and appear multiple times within a product family should be grouped into a single module

      • this module can then be reused across the product family

    • Unique Functions:

      • identify functions that are unique to a single product or subset of products

      • group functions into modules to facilitate product variety


Advantages of modular architectures l.jpg

Advantages of Modular Architectures

  • Facilitates product change and product variety

    • modules can easily be upgraded, degraded, and added-on

    • modules can easily be reused or replaced

  • Modular products can be quickly reconfigured to meet changing market requirements

  • Improves economies of scale through component and module sharing across products (economies of scope)


Disadvantages of modular architectures l.jpg

Disadvantages of Modular Architectures

  • Easier to reverse engineer

  • Modular products tend to sub-optimal

  • Assembly costs are slightly higher


Advantages of integral architectures l.jpg

Advantages of Integral Architectures

  • Facilitates the optimization of “holistic performance characteristics and those that are driven by the size, shape, and mass of a product” [UE00]

  • Minimizes redundancy through function sharing

  • Minimizes number of parts which much be assembled


Disadvantages of integral architectures l.jpg

Disadvantages of Integral Architectures

  • Difficult to upgrade and reconfigure

  • Adjusting or “fine-tuning” a single function can be more complex and difficult

  • Components and modules cannot be easily replaced if worn or broken


Modular vs integral architectures l.jpg

Modular vs. Integral Architectures

  • As product functionality overshoots customer needs, modular architectures become more competitive

Compete through

superior functionality

Sustaining Technology

Modular Architectures

High

Customer

Needs and

Expectations

Performance

Med

Integral Architectures

Low

Disruptive Technology

Compete through speed, customization, and convenience

Time

Adapted from:

C. Christensen and M. Verlinden, 2002, "Disruption, Disintegration, and the Dissipation of Differentiability," Industrial and Corporate Change, vol. 11(5), pp. 955-993.


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