Social psychology
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Social psychology. 社会心理学 2011 最新版. 课程讲授者:崔丽莹. 上海师范大学心理系 联系方式 : [email protected] 学习安排. 第一天 : 10 节 ( 概述 社会化与自我 社会知觉与归因 ) 第二天 :10 节 ( 社会动机 社会行为 社会态度 ) 第三天 :12 节 ( 沟通与人际关系 社会影响 爱情婚姻和家庭 ). 三种社会心理学.

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Social psychology

Social psychology

2011


Social psychology

: [email protected]


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Are you sleepy

Are you sleepy?

  • In the above activities, how do othersinfluence or relate to each other?


Social psychology


Social psychology

1.We construct our social reality

2.Our social intuitions are often powerful but sometimes perilous

3.Social influences shape our behavior

4.Personal attitudes and dispositions also shape behavior

5.Social behavior is also biological behavior

6.Social psychologys principles are applicable to everyday life and other disciplines


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Social psychology

3

  • 1(Social Thinking)

    the effects of teachers expectations

    basketball fans misconception of the hot hand.2(Social Influence)

    groupthink in the Bay of Pigs fiasco

    3(Social Relations):

    the bystander phenomenon, such as the Kitty Genovese case


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Questions

questions

  • Youve decided to see a Broadway play for which the ticket price is $40. As you enter the theater to buy your ticket, you discover youve lost $40 from your pocket. Would you still buy the ticket? (Assume you have enough cash left to do so.)

  • _____ Yes

  • _____ No


Social psychology

  • Youve decided to see a Broadway play and have bought a $40 ticket. As you enter the theater, you realize youve lost your ticket. You cant remember the seat number, so you cant prove to the management that you bought a ticket. Would you spend $40 for a new ticket?

  • _____ Yes

  • _____ No


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Social psychology

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Social psychology


Social psychology


Social psychology


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Social psychology

2

  • 1who am I

  • 2self-esteem

  • 3self-control

  • 4self-presentation


What is this self

What is this self ?

  • William James: methe Me-self and Ithe I-self

  • Self as an Object ( A stable entity,

  • Self as an Agent


1 who am i

1who am I

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Social psychology

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Social psychology

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Material self

Material self


Social self

Social self

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Spiritual self

Spiritual self


Social psychology

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Self as an agent

Self as an Agent

  • manperson


Social psychology

  • (self-awareness)

  • (self-agency)

  • (self-continuity)

  • (self-coherence)


Self knowledge

Self-knowledge

  • Explaining our behavior

  • Predicting our behavior

  • Predicting our feelings


Social psychology

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3


Self complexity

self-complexity

  • :


Self and culture

Self and culture

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parent

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Social psychology

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Social psychology

  • 1

  • 2 Social comparisons

  • 3 Other peoples judgmentsreflected appraisals

  • 4 Self-reflection

    5self-perception: Self-attribution from own external behavior


The looking glass self

the looking-glass self

  • Cooley

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3


Social psychology

  • what matters for our self-concept is not what others actually think but what we perceive them as thinking.

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Social comparison l festinger

Social comparison (L. Festinger )

  • 1

    2

  • 1

    2


Social psychology


Social psychology


Social psychology


Self serving bias

Self-Serving Bias


Explanations for positive and negative events

Explanations for positive and negative events


Can we all be better than average

Can we all be better than average?

  • 1976100706085251


Unrealistic optimism

Unrealistic optimism


For example

For example

  • The results of a U.S. News & World Report poll (March 31, 1997, p. 18) provide an effective, humorous introduction to the literature on self-serving bias. The poll asked 1,000 Americans whether they thought various celebrities were likely to go to heaven.

  • 66 percent thought that Princess Diana (before her death five months later) scored 60 percent, Michael Jordan received a 65 percent positive rating, Bill Clinton got the nod from 52 percent, O. J. Simpson received a mere 19 percent.

  • The top vote-getter? More than 87 percent of Americans surveyed believed themselves likely to go to heaven.


Social psychology

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False consensus and uniqueness

False consensus and uniqueness

  • The Barnum Effect It refers to our tendency to accept as valid favorable descriptions of our personality that are generally true of everyone.


Social psychology


Social psychology


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3 years old

3 years old

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2 self esteem

2self-esteem

  • Self-Esteem

  • A persons overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth.


Social psychology


Social psychology

  • Zuckerman:


Social psychology

  • self-worth

  • Self-efficacy


Social psychology

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  • 1

  • 2

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  • 4

  • 5

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The dark side of self esteem

The Dark Side of Self-Esteem


Genuine self esteem

(genuine self-esteem)


3 self regulation

3self-regulation

  • self-control p57


Social psychology

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Self handicapping

self-handicapping

Self-handicapping: protecting ones self-image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failure.p78


Social psychology

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E tory higgins s 1989 self discrepancy theory

E. Tory Higginss (1989) self-discrepancy theory

  • His theory distinguishes between domains of the self and standpoints on the self.

  • The three types of self-domains are

  • the actual self, the traits that someone (yourself or another) believes you possess;

  • the ideal self, the traits that someone (yourself or another) would like you to possess;

  • the ought self, the traits that someone (yourself or another) believes you should possess.


Social psychology

  • Two standpoints on the self include

    (1) your own personal standpoint;

    (2) the standpoint of some significant other (e.g., mother, father, spouse, and close friend).


Six basic types of self state representations

six basic types of self-state representations

  • Combining the domains on the self with the different standpoints creates six basic types :

    actual/own, actual/other,

    ideal/own, ideal/other,

    ought/own, and ought/other


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Social psychology

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3 2 1 locus of control

3-2-1 Locus of control

  • Internals

  • Externals


Internals

Internals

  • Internals believe the rewards and punishments they receive in life are produced by their own actions and thus they have a sense of personal control.

  • Internals take credit for their success, but also accept responsibility for failure.

  • They perceive themselves as more active, powerful, independent, and effective than do externals. Even when faced with obstacles, internals are likely to take an active, controlling approach to life.

  • They have a can do mentality.


Externals

Externals

  • Externals believe the reward and punishments they receive in life occur quite independently of whatever they do and thus they have a sense of helplessness.

  • Because they believe their successes and failures in life are due to luck, chance, fate, social forces, or powerful others, externals neither take credit for their success nor accept blame for failure.

  • They perceive themselves as relatively powerless, dependent, and ineffective. Even when life is good to them, externals approach tasks in a passive, helpless, fatalistic manner.


Question 1

Question 1

  • How would this dimension (Locus of control) influence the extent to which people are superstitious, believe in horoscopes, quack remedies, and magical rituals?


Question 2

Question 2

  • What childhood experiences or characteristics of your family may have contributed to your own locus of control expectancies?


3 2 2 out of control

3-2-2 out of control

  • Feelings of loss of control can result from uncertainty, loss of freedom or choice, the inability to produce outcomes we desire.


Social psychology


4 self presentation

4self-presentation

  • False modesty

  • Self-handicapping

  • Impression management


Social psychology

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Social psychology

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SOLER1977

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Social psychology

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Social psychology


Social psychology

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Heuristics mental shortcuts

Heuristics: Mental Shortcuts()


Heuristic

Heuristic

Heuristic :a thinking strategy that enables quick ,efficient judgments .

  • Representative Heuristic

  • The Availability Heuristic

  • Counterfactual Thinking


Social psychology

  • Asch (1946)

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Social psychology

  • primacy effects

  • recency effects

  • Luchins (1957)70% 12%


  • Social psychology

    1


    Social psychology

    2


    Social psychology

    1957


    Social psychology

    3

    • --implicit personality theory

    • Rosenberg

    • halo effect

    • Dion1972


    Social psychology


    Social psychology

    4

    • leniency effect

    • positivity bias

    • 1

    • 2

    • 3


    Social psychology

    5

    • self -fulfilling prophecy)

    • Rosenthal Jacobson1968

    • //


    Teacher expectations and student performance

    Teacher expectations and student performance

    1. Teachers expectation : Renas older brother was brilliant . I bet she is ,too .

    2. Teachers behavior : smiling more at Rena, teaching her more ,calling on her more ,giving more time to answer .

    3. Students behavior : Rena responds enthusiastically .


    Social psychology

    • Once you have a belief ,it influence how you perceive all other relevant information .once you see a country as hostile ,you are likely to interpret ambiguous actions on their part as signifying their hostility


    Brewer 1988

    Brewer1988)

    • the dual process model of impression formation

    • (category-based processing )

    • attribute based processing


    Social psychology

    • (Stereotype)


    Social psychology

    • 1990


    Social psychology

    1

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    Social psychology

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    • (attribution

    • 1

    • 2

    • 3


    Social psychology

    1Heider, F., 1958


    2 cube theory

    2cube theory

    • Kelley, H., 1967

    • 1

      • actor

      • stimulus

  • - situation


  • Social psychology

    2

    • Aconsistency

    • Bconsensus

    • Cdistinctiveness


    Social psychology

    3

    • Weiner 1972)(Achievement Attribution Model ), Weiner1979

    • 1

    • 2

    • 3


    Social psychology

    • Bandura1977

    • Self-efficacy

    • Learned helplessnessSeligman1967

    • +


    Social psychology

    4,

    • JonesDavis1965Correspondent Inference Theory

    • 1

    • 2


    Attribution warp

    attribution warp

    • 1(fundamental attribution error)

    • correspondent bias

    • 1 2


    Social psychology

    2


    3 self serving attribution bias

    3 (self-serving attribution bias)

    • self-handicapping


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