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Jefferson Lab Presentation to Teacher Education Program November 8, 2006. Subatomic Particles: What do we study at Jefferson Lab? Dr. Allison Lung 12 GeV Upgrade Project Director & Senior Staff Physicist. nucleons. Nuclear Physics: All About Atoms. education.jlab.org/atomtour.

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jefferson lab presentation to teacher education program november 8 2006

Jefferson LabPresentation to Teacher Education ProgramNovember 8, 2006

Subatomic Particles:

What do we study at Jefferson Lab?

Dr. Allison Lung

12 GeV Upgrade Project Director

&

Senior Staff Physicist

slide2

nucleons

Nuclear Physics: All About Atoms

education.jlab.org/atomtour

fundamental particles
Fundamental Particles

electric

charge

increasingmass

2/3

-1/3

0

-1

All visible matter in universe is made of Generation I particles.

four fundamental forces
Four Fundamental Forces

fundamental particles interact by responding to a force from another particle

and still more empty space filled with force fields
And still more empty space…. filled with force fields

Atoms are 99.999999999999% empty space !!

world of atoms a little background education
World of Atoms – a little background education

Atom: nucleus of neutrons & protons with orbiting electrons

go down one layer

Electron: very light particle with negative charge

Proton: weight equals ~2000 electrons, positive charge

Neutron: weight almost equal to proton, no net charge

go down one layer

Quarks: fundamental particles, 6 types,

up/down/strange are the lightest and most common

Forces: strong, electromagnetic, weak, gravity;

strong force holds quarks together

go down one layer ???

is there another layer ???

world of atoms a little background education13
World of Atoms – a little background education

we are more “empty space” than matter,

“empty space” is filled with carefully balanced forces,

get students to expand on the solar system model of atoms

great Web pages for students:

http://www.particleadventure.org

http://education.jlab.org

http://www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc

great Web pages for teachers:

http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000

http://www.fnal.gov/pub/education/k-12_programs.html

http://csee.lbl.gov

http://www.nsta.org

what really cool tiny stuff do we study
What really cool, tiny stuff do we study?

What forces hold the neutrons and protons together in an atom?

What forces hold the quarks inside a proton together?

How is electric charge distributed within a neutron or proton?

How is magnetic field distributed within a neutron or proton?

Does a “free” quark behave the same as a quark bound inside a proton?

Does a “free” quark behave the same as a quark bound inside a heavy atom?

jefferson lab s scientific purpose
Jefferson Lab’s Scientific Purpose

Study how quarks and gluons combine to form

protons and neutrons

Study how protons, neutrons, and electrons combine to form atoms

jefferson lab lay out
Jefferson Lab Lay-out
  • Dept. of Energy Laboratory
  • ~700 employees
  • >2000 scientists from 18 countries

accelerator schematic

aerial photo

  • 7/8 mile racetrack
  • superconducting
  • 3 experimental Halls
  • 6 billion electron volts
detector systems study strange quarks in proton g zero
Detector Systemsstudy strange quarks in proton (G-zero)

~ $10 Million cost

~ 5 year construction

~ 5 year measurements

~ 50 ton weight

~ 20 feet height

proton detectors

superconducting magnet

electron beam

hydrogen target

what are we studying right now
What are we studying right now ?

How do strange quarks contribute

to the properties of the proton?

Do they contribute to the spin?

Are the strange quark’s electric

interactions different from their

magnetic interactions?

what have we learned lately

Pentaquark – 5 quark combinations may exist?

What have we learned lately ?

proton can take many shapes……

quark’s spin doesn’t match neutron’s spin

slide24

Upgrade magnets and power supplies

CHL-2

12

6 GeV CEBAF

11

Two 0.6 GV linacs

1.1

New cryomodules get new rf zones

FUTURE JEFFERSON LAB

gluex hall d detector
GlueX / Hall D Detector

Lead Glass

Detector

Barrel

Calorimeter

Solenoid

Coherent Bremsstrahlung

Photon Beam

Time of

Flight

Note that tagger is

80 m upstream of

detector

Tracking

Cerenkov

Counter

Target

Electron Beam from CEBAF

architect s rendering of hall d complex
Architect’s rendering of Hall D complex

Hall D

Counting House

Cryo Plant

Service Buildings

summary
SUMMARY

Jefferson Lab:

  • studies how protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of atoms
  • studies how quarks and gluons make up neutrons and protons
  • collides electrons with atomic targets and measures the energy, speed, and trajectory of scattered particles

for your students

  • introduce the solar system model of the atom
  • go further...introduce forces (gravity, weak, electromagnetic, strong)
  • gee whiz factor!
    • we are more “empty space” than matter
    • there are incredible forces acting in that “empty space”

physics is a great career !

slide29
Nuclear Physics as a Career
  • college degree(s) required in physics, math, or computer science
  • possible career paths:
    • government laboratory scientist
    • university professor & researcher
    • computer firms
    • modeling economic trends on Wall Street
    • start-up technology companies (medical imaging, cryogenic helium…..)
  • salary range at Jefferson Lab (comparable to university professors):
    • Staff Scientist I (approx. $48,000 to $75,000)
    • Staff Scientist II (approx. $60,000 to $95,000)
    • Staff Scientist III (approx $75,000 to $120,000)
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