Embedded systems microcontrollers embedded processors an overview
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“In the name of God”. Scientific Group of CSE Presents :. Embedded Systems Microcontrollers & Embedded Processors An Overview. By: Ramtin Raji Kermani Junior student of Computer Hardware Eng. Spring 2005. Embedded Systems. What is an Embedded System? Where are Embedded Systems used?

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Embedded systems microcontrollers embedded processors an overview

“In the name of God”

Scientific Group of CSE Presents :

Embedded SystemsMicrocontrollers & Embedded ProcessorsAn Overview

By: Ramtin Raji Kermani

Junior student of Computer Hardware Eng.

Spring 2005

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


Embedded systems

Embedded Systems

  • What is an Embedded System?

  • Where are Embedded Systems used?

  • Typical Embedded Systems Hardware

  • Embedded OS and Software

  • Microcontrollers

  • The 8051 Microcontroller

  • A simple project using AT89C51

  • References

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


What is and embedded system

What is and Embedded System?

A specialized computer system that is part of a larger system or machine. Typically, an embedded system is housed on a single microprocessor board with the programs stored in ROM. Virtually all appliances that have a digital interface -- watches, microwaves, VCRs, cars -- utilize embedded systems. Some embedded systems include an operating system, but many are so specialized that the entire logic can be implemented as a single program. (Definition from wikipedia.com)

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


What is and embedded system1

What is and Embedded System?

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


Es other definitions

ES, Other definitions

  • A special purpose computer built into a larger device.

    • Special purpose:

      • - Embedded systems have a (more or less) well-defined purpose

      • - Contrast with: general purpose computers (PCs etc)

      • - Both hardware and software is tailored to application(s), which are well defined

      • - However, re-programmability is a requirement

    • Built into a larger device:

      • ESs are (usually) part of a larger device, augmenting its capabilities

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


Es other definitions1

ES, Other definitions

  • Any device that includes a programmable computer but is not itself a general-purpose computer.

  • Anything that uses a computer but does not look like one.

  • The microprocessor in an embedded system is like an electric motor in a washing machine.

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


Es types characteristics

ES Types & Characteristics

  • Types of Processing unit:

    • Hardwired logic

    • Programmable units

  • ES Characteristics:

    • Efficiently

    • Cost effective

    • Power efficiently

    • Real-time

    • Predictability

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


Es history and solutions

ES: History and Solutions

  • A very little history: ;)

    • The first Embedded System: Apollo Guidance Computer.

  • Embedded Systems Solutions:

    • Microcontrollers

    • Embedded Processors

    • Digital Signal processors

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


Where are embedded systems used

Where are Embedded Systems used?

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


Where are embedded systems used1

Where are Embedded Systems used?

  • Signal processing systems

    • Real-time video, DVD players, Medical equipment.

  • Distributed control

    • Network routers, switches, firewalls, mass transit systems, Elevators

  • “Small” systems

    • Mobile phones, pagers, home appliances, toys, smartcards, MP3 players, PDAs, digital cameras, sensors, pc keyboard & mouse

  • Modern cars: Up to 100 or more processors

    • Engine control unit

    • ABS systems (Anti Lock Brake systems)

    • Emissions control

    • Diagnostics and Security systems

    • Accessories (doors, windows etc)

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


Typical embedded systems hardware

Typical Embedded Systems Hardware

  • Commercial off-the-shelf components (COTS)

    • e.g. wireless radios, sensors, I/O devices

    • Cheap

  • Application-Specific ICs (ASICs)

    • ICs tailored to meet application needs

    • Good performance for their intended task(s)

    • Original ESs were ASICs only

  • Domain-specific processors

    • DSPs

    • Microcontrollers

  • Microprocessors

    • General Purpose Processors

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


New trends in es hw

New trends in ES HW

  • Systems-on-chip

    • Usual (or desired) specs:

      • 32-bit RISC CPU

      • Built-in interfaces to RAM and ROM

      • Built-in DMA, interrupt and timing controllers

      • Built-in interfaces to disk or flash memory

      • Built-in Ethernet/802.11 interfaces

      • Built-in LCD/CRT interfaces

    • New SOCs appearing almost every week!

  • Examples

    • Intel StrongARM SA-1110

    • Motorola PowerPC MPC823e

    • NEC VR4181

    • Many, many more

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


Embedded os and software

Embedded OS and Software

  • Principal role: ‘Not transformation of data but interaction with physical world’

  • Acquires properties of physical world

    • Takes time

    • Consumes power

    • Does not terminate (unless it fails)

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


Embedded operating systems

Embedded Operating Systems:

  • Office-style OSes

    • PalmOS

    • WindowsCE

  • RTOSes

    • VxWorks

    • QNX

  • Linux

    • Linux is already ubiquitous

      • Hundreds of different devices are using it

      • http://www.linuxdevices.com/articles/AT4936596231.html

    • Numerous commercial + open source products

  • Mobile OS

    • Symbian

  • Others

    • TinyOS

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


What is a microcontroller

What is a Microcontroller?

  • A microcontroller is an entire computer manufactured on a single chip.

  • They have a high concentration of on-chip facilities such as serial ports, parallel input/output ports, timers, counters, interrupt control, analog-to-digital converters, random access memory, read only memory, etc.

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


The 8051 microcontroller

The 8051 Microcontroller:

  • The 8051 is the first microcontroller of the MCS-51 family introduced by Intel Corporation at the end of the 1970’s.

  • The 8051 family characteristics:

    • 4K Bytes ROM

    • 128 Bytes RAM

    • two timer/counters (16 bit)

    • A serial port

    • 4 general purpose parallel input/output port

    • Interrupt controller

      The 8051 can address 64K of external data memory and 64K of External program memory.

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


Microcontroller 8051 internal architecture

Microcontroller 8051 internal Architecture

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


8051 pin description

8051 pin description

  • 8051 other family members:

    • 8751 (has EPROM)

    • 8951 (has EEPROM)

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


A simple project using at89c51

A simple project using AT89C51

  • Here we’ve designed, built and programmed a digital BCD counter that counts from 0 to 9 on a 7Segment display.

  • We use register A as Accumulator, in each delayed cycle the accumulator increments by one and result is showed on the 7segment display.

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


A simple project using at89c511

A simple project using AT89C51

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


References

References

  • Web References:

    • www.google.com

    • http://www.embedded.com

    • http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Embedded_system

    • http://www.linuxdevices.com

    • Mani Srivastava’s EE202A class

      • http://nesl.ee.ucla.edu/courses/ee202a/2002f

    • Edward Lee, “Embedded Software”

      • http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/497408.html

  • Books:

    • The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems: Mazidi, M.A.

    • Microprocessors: Uffenbeck, john

    • 201 مدار عملی با میکروکنترولر 8051، ف. خاکپور، انتشارات صفار

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


At the end

At the End …

  • Thanks for your Attention … ;)

    Ramtin Raji Kermani

    Spring 2005

Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University


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