Chapter 15 information search visualization
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Chapter 15: Information Search & Visualization. Team 3: Jacob Hicks, Victor Chen, Saba Alavi. Introduction. Information exploration overload/anxiety? Object-actions Interface (OAI) model helps by: separating different task concepts

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Chapter 15 information search visualization

Chapter 15: Information Search & Visualization

Team 3: Jacob Hicks, Victor Chen, Saba Alavi


  • Information exploration overload/anxiety?

  • Object-actions Interface (OAI) model helps by:

    • separating different task concepts

    • separating high-level interface issues from low level interface issues

  • N00bs in an information-exploration system…

    • struggle to understand what they see whilst remembering their information needs

    • might be distracted by learning complex query languages/elaborate shape-coding rules

    • need direct-manipulation designs/simple visual-coding rules (low cognition)

    • can request additional features by adjusting control panels

  • Experienced users want more functionality and power: a wider range of search tools, lots of options

Introduction cont d
Introduction (cont’d)

  • Task objectsrepresented by interface objectsin structured relational databases or text/media document libraries

  • Structured relational databasesmade up of relations and a schema (model) to describe relations

  • Relationshave items(tuples/records), which consist of multiple atomic attributes, each of which have attributevalues

  • Textual document librarycomprised of collections and descriptive attributes(e.g. location, media type, curator, donor, etc.)

Introduction cont d1
Introduction (cont’d)

  • Multimedia document library same as textual document library, only instead of text, it’s media: images, sound, video, animations, etc.

  • Task actions(i.e. fact finding) decomposed into browsing/searching, represented by interface actions(i.e. scrolling, zooming, joining, linking)

  • Finding aids help users focus their info needs (i.e. table of contents, indices, abstracts, etc)

Database query phrase search
Database Query/Phrase Search

  • SQL a widespread standard for searching in structured relational database systems

  • Requires substantial time investment to learn

  • Computer’s capacity for responding to natural language query often limited

  • Tradeoff exists between ease of use and usefulness

  • Empirical studies illustrate better performance and more satisfaction when users are able to view and control the search

Database query phrase search1
Database Query/Phrase Search

  • Improved designs & consistency across differing systems allows for faster performance, fewer mistakes, and more successful searches

  • Recommends four phase framework:

    • Formulation – expressing the search

    • Initiation of the action – launching the search

    • Review of results

    • Refinement – formulating the next step

Multimedia document searches
Multimedia Document Searches

  • Current approaches to locating media rely on parallel databases and document searches

  • Advocates for ambitions captioning and attribute recording

  • Classification according to useful search categories useful, though costly and imperfect

  • Graphical specification of query components:

    • Photo search

    • Map Search

    • Design/diagram search

    • Sound search

    • Video Search

    • Animation Search

Information visualization
Information Visualization

  • Bandwidth of vision is high

  • Overview first, zoom and filter, then details on demand.

  • Data type by task

1 d linear
1-D Linear

  • Text documents

  • Source Code

  • Bifocal Display

  • Value Bars

2 d map
2-D Map

  • Maps

  • Floorplans

  • Newspaper layouts

3d world
3D World

  • Real objects, models, ect.

  • Must keep track of position orientation

  • Occlusion

Temporal data
Temporal data

  • Time lines

  • 1D linear

  • Start and finish time

  • Events may overlap

Multidimesional data
Multidimesional data

  • n-dimensional space

  • Databases with n attributes

  • Can be 2D or 3D

  • Scattergrams

Tree data
Tree data

  • Hierarchies

  • Can be shown as lines and nodes

  • Tabbed text files

  • Cones in 3D

Network data
Network data

  • Networks

  • Cannot be written as a tree

  • Node-and-link

  • Square matrix

Overview task
Overview Task

  • Movable field of view

  • 3 to 30 zoom amount

  • Fisheye

Zoom task
Zoom task

  • View a specific area in detail

  • Smooth zooming preserves orientation

  • “A satisfying way to zoom in is to point to a location and to issue a zooming command”

Filter task
Filter task

  • Remove unwanted items

  • Widgets to regulate process

  • Dynamic control of items

Details on demand task
Details-on-demand task

  • Select item or group to get details

  • Click on an item to get popup window

Relate task
Relate task

  • View relationships amoung items

  • Select an item to highlight related items

History task
History task

  • Keep history to support undo

  • Tasks from the past combinded

Extract task
Extract Task

  • Extraction of subcollection of parameters

  • Allow to save the records that result from a search

  • Save settings

Advanced filtering
Advanced Filtering

  • Dynamic queries

  • Numeric range sliders

  • Alphasliders for names

  • Bottons for small sets of categories

Commercial information retrieval systems
Commercial Information–retrieval systems

  • Example – DIALOG or First Search

  • Permit complex Boolean expressions with parentheses but they are difficult to use

  • When we say or in English it means not both, but in Boolean OR is inclusive .

  • New York and Boston ( result 0 )

Another form of filtering
Another form of filtering …

  • Apply a user-constructed set of keywords to dynamically generated information. Such as incoming email messages…..

  • A social form of filtering is collaborative filtering ….. Music, Restaurants ..


  • Improved user interface to traditional databese-query or multimedia-document search will spawn appealing new products.

  • The more Flexible the better…

  • 15.7 Search in complex structured documents. graphics, images, sound or video persents grand opportunities for the design of advanced user interfaces and powerful search engines .