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Table of Contents. Fossil Fuels Renewable Sources of Energy Nuclear Energy Energy Conservation. Key Terms:. Examples:. petrochemicals. - Fossil Fuels. Building Vocabulary.

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Table of Contents

Fossil Fuels

Renewable Sources of Energy

Nuclear Energy

Energy Conservation

Key Terms:



- Fossil Fuels

Building Vocabulary

Using a word in a sentence helps you think about how best to explain the word. After you read the section, reread the paragraphs that contain definitions of Key Terms. Use all the information you have learned to write a meaningful sentence using each Key Term.

Key Terms:


energy transformation



An example of energy transformation is combustion, when a fuel is burned and chemical energy is released.

Petrochemicals, which are also made from oil, are used to make medicines, plastics, paints, and cosmetics.


fossil fuels


Oil, also called petroleum, is one of the fossil fuels, which are made up of energy-rich hydrocarbons.


Many products that come from oil are produced in a refinery, where oil is heated and separated.

- Fossil Fuels

Energy Transformation and Fuels

When fuels are burned, the chemical energy that is released can be used to generate another form of energy, such as heat, light, motion, or electricity.

Fossil Fuels

Energy Transformation and Fuels Pg. 674-675

  • A Substance that provides a form of energy, such as heat, as a result of a chemical change is a(n) ____.


    2. Energy cannot be converted from one form to another.


    3. The process of burning a fuel is called ____.


    4. The energy stored in fuels can be used to generate electricity.


Fossil Fuels

5. Sentences that are true about the production of electric power.

  • In most power plants, water is boiled to make steam.

  • Powerful magnets turn inside a wire coil.

- Fossil Fuels

What Are Fossil Fuels?

Coal is a solid fossil fuel formed from plant remains.

- Fossil Fuels

What Are Fossil Fuels?

Crude oil is first pumped out of the ground and then refined. In the refining process, crude oil is heated and separated to make different products.

Fossil Fuels

What Are Fossil Fuels? Pg. 676-679

6. Energy-rich substances formed from the remains of once-living organisms are called ____.

fossil fuels

7. List the three major fossil fuels.

  • Coal

  • Oil

  • Natural gas

Fossil Fuels

8. Energy-rich chemical compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen atoms are called ____.


9. Flowchart:

Left: Hydrogen + Carbon + ______


Right: _____ + _______ = Energy

Carbon Dioxide + Water

10. A solid fossil fuel formed from plant remains is _____.


11. Today, coal provides 23 percent of the energy used worldwide.


Fossil Fuels

12. The major use of coal is to fuel factories.


13. Sentences that are true about coal as an energy source.

  • It provides a lot of energy when burned.

    14. How can coal mining harm the environment?

    It can increase erosion and run-off from mines can cause water pollution.

    15. Another name for oil---the thick,black,liquid fossil fuel– is ______ .


Fossil Fuels

16. Sentences that are true about petroleum.

  • Petroleum fuels most cars, airplanes, trains, and ships.

  • The United States consumes a third of all the petroleum produced in the world.

  • Finding oil is difficult.

    17. Scientists can use ______ to test an area for oil without drilling.

    sound waves

    18. When oil is first pumped out of the ground, it is called _____.

    crude oil

    19. A factory where crude oil is separated into fuels and other products by heating is called a(n) ____.


Fossil Fuels

20. Compounds that are made from oil are called _____.


21. Sentences that are true about natural gas.

  • It produces a lot of energy.

  • It is highly flammable.

    22. Because natural gas is less dense than oil, it often rises above an oil deposit.


Fossil Fuels

23. Fossil fuels are considered a renewable resource.


24. Sentences that are true about the supply of fossil fuels.

  • Fossil fuels take hundreds of millions of years to form.

  • New sources of energy are needed to replace decreasing fossil reserves.

- Fossil Fuels

Fuels and Electricity

The circle graph shows which energy sources are used to produce electricity in the United States.

The percentage of total U.S. electricity that is produced using the labeled energy source

Reading Graphs:

What does each wedge of the circle represent?

- Fossil Fuels

Fuels and Electricity


Interpreting Data:

Which energy source is used to generate most of the electricity in the United States?

- Fossil Fuels

Fuels and Electricity

70.8% (59.3% coal, 9.3% natural gas, 2.2% petroleum)

Drawing Conclusions:

What percentage of the electricity production in the United States relies on fossil fuels?

- Fossil Fuels

Fuels and Electricity

Coal, petroleum, and natural gas might decrease because they are in limited supply; nuclear and hydroelectric energy sources might increase to replace fossil fuels.


How might the circle graph differ 50 years from now? Give reasons to support your prediction.

- Fossil Fuels

Fuels and Electricity

- Fossil Fuels

Links on Fossil Fuels

Click the SciLinks button for links on fossil fuels.

End of Section:Fossil Fuels

- Renewable Sources of Energy

Previewing Visuals

Write two questions that you have about the diagram “Harnessing the Sun’s Energy” in a graphic organizer like the one below. Then, answer your questions.

Solar House

Q. How does the house capture solar energy?

A. Active solar collectors on the roof, large windows on the south and west sides that act as passive solar collectors

Q. What does the equipment that is on the roof do?

A. Active solar cells on the roof generate electricity that can be stored in a battery in the basement.

Q. What is the difference between active and passive solar heating systems?

A. Both convert sunlight into thermal energy, but only active systems use pumps and fans to distribute heat.

- Renewable Sources of Energy

Harnessing the Sun’s Energy

Passive and active solar systems

convert solar energy into

heat and electricity

in a solar house.

Renewable Resources of Energy

Harnessing the Sun’s Energy Pg. 682-683

  • What is solar energy?

    It is energy from the sun.

    2. The sentence that is true about solar energy.

  • It is the source of most other renewable energy resources.

  • It will not run out for billions of years.

  • It is available only when the sun is shinning.

    3. How do some solar plants capture energy and use it to generate electricity?

    Rows of giant mirrors focus the sun’s rays to heat a tank of water. The water boils, making steam that can be used to generate electricity.

Renewable Resources of Energy

4. Solar energy can be converted directly into electricity in a solar cell.


5. What are cells used to power?

They are used to power calculators, lights, and other small devices.

6. Solar heating systems convert sunlight into mechanical energy.


7. Concept Map:



Renewable Resources of Energy

8. How do active solar heating systems differ from passive solar heating systems?

Active solar heating systems use fans and pumps to distribute the heat.

Hydroelectric Power Pg. 684

9. List other renewable sources of energy besides the sun.

  • Water

  • Wind

  • Biomass

  • Geothermal energy

  • Hydrogen

    10. Electricity produced by flowing water is called ____.

    hydroelectrical power

Renewable Resources of Energy

11. Hydroelectrical power is the least widely used source of renewable energy in the world today.


12. What are two limitations on hydroelectric power in the United States.

Most of the suitable rivers have already been dammed, and dams can have negative effects on the environment.

Capturing the Wind Pg. 684-685

13. Sentences that are true about wind energy.

  • It is the fastest-growing of the world’s electricity.

  • In some places it is the major source of power.

Renewable Resources of Energy

14. Most places have winds that blow steadily enough to be a worthwhile energy source.


Biomass Fuels Pg. 685

15. Fuels made from living things are called ____.

biomass fuels

16. Sentences that are true about biomass fuels

  • They include leaves, food wastes, and manure.

  • They can be converted to other fuels.

  • They are renewable resources.

Renewable Resources of Energy

Tapping Earth’s Energy Pg. 686

17. Intense heat from Earth’s interior is called ____.

Geothermal energy

18. Geothermal energy is an unlimited source of cheap energy.


19. Drawing.

- Renewable Sources of Energy

Tapping Earth’s Energy

A geothermal power plant uses heat from Earth’s interior as an energy source to produce electricity.

Renewable Resources of Energy

The Promise of Hydrogen Power Pg. 687

20. What is the obstacle to use hydrogen as a fuel?

It takes more energy to obtain pure hydrogen than is produced by burning the hydrogen.

- Renewable Sources of Energy

Renewable Energy Resources

Click the Video button to watch a movie aboutrenewable energy resources.

- Renewable Sources of Energy

Links on Renewable Energy

Click the SciLinks button for links on renewable energy.

End of Section:Renewable Sources of Energy

- Nuclear Energy

Comparing and Contrasting

As you read, compare fission and fusion reactions in a Venn diagram like the one below. Write the similarities in the space where the circles overlap and the differences on the left and right sides.

Nuclear Fission

Nuclear Fusion


large amounts of energy

Uses hydrogen

Uses uranium

Produces energy

Loses small amounts of mass

Combines nuclei

Splits nuclei

- Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Fission

Nuclear fission is the splitting of an atom’s nucleus into two smaller nuclei.

Nuclear Energy

Introduction Pg. 690

  • The central core of an atom that contains the proton and neutrons is called the ____.


    2. Concept map:



    Nuclear Fission Pg. 690-691

    3. Nuclear reactions convert matter into energy.


    4. What formula, developed by Albert Einstein, describes the relationship between energy and matter?


Nuclear Energy

5. The splitting of an atom’s nucleus into two smaller nuclei is called ____.

nuclear fission

6. In a controlled nuclear chain reaction, the energy released as heat can be used o generate electricity.


- Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Power Plants

In a nuclear power plant, the heat released from fission reactions is used to change

water into steam. The steam then turns

the blades of a turbine to

generate electricity.

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Power Plants Pg. 692-693

7. How is electricity produced in a nuclear power plant?

The heat released from the reactions is used to change water into steam. The steam then turns the blades of a turbine to generate electricity.

8. Reactor vessel

B- it is where nuclear fission occurs

9. Fuel rod

A- it contains the uranium

10. Control rod

C- it controls the reactions

Nuclear Energy

11. Heat exchanger

D- it changes hot water to steam

12. When fuel rods in a nuclear power plant generate to much heat that they start to melt, the condition is called a(n) ______.


13. Why is it difficult to dispose of radioactive wastes produced by power plants?

It is difficult because they remain dangerous for many thousands of years.

- Nuclear Energy

The Quest to Control Fusion

In nuclear fusion, two hydrogen nuclei combine to create a helium nucleus, which has slightly less mass than the two hydrogen nuclei. The lost mass is converted to energy.

Nuclear Energy

The Quest to Control Fusion Pg. 694

14. The combining of two atomic nuclei to produce a single larger nucleus is called _____.

nuclear fusion

15. Sentences that are true about nuclear fusion.

  • The fuel it needs is readily available.

  • It should produce less radioactive waste than nuclear fission.

- Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Power Plant Activity

Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about nuclear power plants.

End of Section:Nuclear Energy

- Energy Conservation

Using Prior Knowledge

Before you read, write what you know about energy efficiency and conservation in a graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, write what you learn.

What You Know

I can turn off lights to conserve energy.

I can walk instead of riding in a car when possible.

What You Learned

One way to preserve our current energy resources is to increase efficiency.

One method of increasing efficiency of heating and cooling systems is to use insulation.

Compact fluorescent bulbs use about one fourth as much energy as incandescent light bulbs.

Energy Conservation

Introduction Pg. 695

  • What are two ways to preserve our current energy sources?

    One way is to increase the efficiency of our energy use. Another way is to conserve energy whenever possible.Energy Efficiency Pg. 696-697

    2. The percentage of energy from a fuel that is actually used to perform work is its _____.


    3. What happens to the energy from a fuel that is not used to preform work?

    Most of the rest of the energy is “lost” to the surroundings, usually a heat.

Energy Conservation

4. A layer of material that helps block the transfer of heat between the air inside and the air outside a building is called ____.


5. How does insulation work?

It traps air, and this layer of trapped air helps keep the building from losing or gaining heat from the outside.

6. Circle the best material for insulation.


7. Why do new windows have two panes of glass with space between them?

The air between the panes of glass acts as insulation to help prevent heat loss through the windows.

Energy Conservation

8.Incandescent light bulbs waste less energy than compact fluorescent bulbs.


9. How have engineers improved the energy efficiency of cars?

Engineers have designed better engines and tires.

10. What are some ways to reduce the number of cars on the road?

Communities can maintain public transit systems that provide an alternative to driving. They also can encourage carpooling.

- Energy Conservation

Energy Conservation

Energy conservation means reducing energy use.

Energy Conservation

11. Reducing energy use is called ______.

energy conservation

12. Sentences that describe a way you can reduce your personal energy use.

  • Walk or ride a bike for short trips.

  • Recycle

Energy Conservation

Key Terms

  • Fuel

  • Petrochemical

  • Petroleum

  • Reactor vessel

  • Refinery

  • Meltdown

  • Efficiency

  • Insulation

  • Conservation

  • Hydroelectric

  • Gasohol

  • hydrocarbon

Graphic Organizer

Energy Type




Pollutes air

Easy to transport

Produces large amounts of energy



Renewable, does not pollute


Requires sunshine

Renewable, does not pollute

Requires steady winds, generators noisy


Dams cause environmental harm


No pollution

Renewable, does not pollute

Limited availability, deep drilling expensive


Produces huge amount of energy


Radioactive waste

End of Section:Energy Conservation

End of Section:Graphic Organizer

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