Using genetic techniques to guide management and design of Marine Protected Areas
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Using genetic techniques to guide management and design of Marine Protected Areas Rob Toonen Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology, School of Ocean & Earth Sciences & Technology University of Hawai'i at Mānoa. January 2008. Recent Sea Grant Awards:

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Using genetic techniques to guide management and design of marine protected areas rob toonen

Using genetic techniques to guide management and design of Marine Protected Areas

Rob Toonen

Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology,

School of Ocean & Earth Sciences & Technology

University of Hawai'i at Mānoa

January 2008


Using genetic techniques to guide management and design of marine protected areas rob toonen

Recent Sea Grant Awards:

2004-05 Marker development for Carijoa riisei ($9,986)

2004 $47,408 HURL

2005 $74,933HURL

2005-06 $71,910HCRI

2005-06 $92,552HISC

2006-07 $57,403WestPac ($344,206 total)

Supported personnel: Sam Kahng

Daniel Wagner

Greg Concepcion


Using genetic techniques to guide management and design of marine protected areas rob toonen

Resulting Publications:

Kahng, S.E. & A. Salih. 2005. Localization of fluorescent pigments in a nonbioluminescent, azooxanthellateoctocoral suggests a photoprotective function. Coral Reefs 24(3):435-436.

Kahng, S.E. & R.W. Grigg. 2005. Impact of an alien octocoral (Carijoariisei) on black corals in Hawaii. Coral Reefs 24(4):556-562.

Kahng, S.E. & J.E. Maragos. 2006. The deepest zooxanthellate, scleractinian corals in the world? Coral Reefs. 25(2):254.

Kahng S.E. 2006. Ecology and ecological impact of an alien octocoral, Carijoariisei, in Hawaii. Ph.D. thesis, University of Hawaii, p284

Concepcion, G., M. Medina & R.J. Toonen. 2006.Novel mtDNA intron primers from scleractinian corals. Molecular Ecology Notes. 6:1208–1211

Wagner, D., S. Kahng & R.J. Toonen. 2007. New report of nudibranch predators of the invasive octocoralCarijoariiseiin the Hawaiian Islands. Coral Reefs. 26:411

Kahng, S.E. & C. Kelley. 2007. Vertical zonation of habitat forming benthic species on the deep reef (60-150m) in the Au’au Channel, Hawaii. Coral Reefs

Concepcion, G., M. Crepeau, D. Wagner, S.E. Kahng & R.J. Toonen. Online first. An alternative to ITS - a hypervariable, single-copy nuclear intron in corals, and its use in detecting cryptic species within the octocoral genus Carijoa. Coral Reefs.

Kahng, S.E., D. Wagner, N. Rothe, Y. Benayahu. In press. Sexual reproduction in Carijoariisei (Octocorallia: Clavulariidae) in Hawaii. Bulletin of Marine Science

Concepcion, G., S.E. Kahng, M. Crepeau, E.C. Franklin, S. Coles & R.J. Toonen. In review. Molecular data refute a Caribbean introduction and suggest multiple origins for the invasive snowflake coral in Hawaii. Molecular Ecology.

Concepcion G.T., & R.J. Toonen. In prep. Microsatellite markers for 3 species of Hawaiian corals: Acroporacytherea, Montiporacapitata, and Fungiascutaria. Journal of Heredity.

Wagner, D. S. Kahng & R.J. Toonen. In prep. Evaluation of the specialist nudibranchPhyllodesmiumpoindemei for possible biocontrol of the invasive snowflake coral Carijoariisei in Hawaii. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology.

Wagner, D. S. Kahng & R.J. Toonen. In prep. Temperature and salinity tolerances of the invasive snowflake coralCarijoariisei in Hawaii, and implications for possible control. Marine Biology.

Kahng, S.E., Y. Benayahu, H. Lasker. In prep. Sexual reproduction in alcyonaceanoctocorals. Marine Ecology Progress Series


Using genetic techniques to guide management and design of marine protected areas rob toonen

Primary results from this work:

Quantified the spread and effect of Carijoa on native Black Corals


Using genetic techniques to guide management and design of marine protected areas rob toonen

Primary results from this work:

Quantified the spread and effect of Carijoa on native Black Corals

Developed new genetic markers now adopted by NSF-funded Tree of Life Consortium


Using genetic techniques to guide management and design of marine protected areas rob toonen

Primary results from this work:

Quantified the spread and effect of Carijoa on native Black Corals

Developed new genetic markers now adopted by NSF-funded Tree of Life Consortium

Ecology of specialist predator and evaluation of potential bio-control


Using genetic techniques to guide management and design of marine protected areas rob toonen

  • Primary results from this work:

  • Quantified the spread and effect of Carijoa on native Black Corals

  • Developed new markers now adopted by NSF-funded Tree of Life Consortium

  • Ecology of specialist predator and evaluation of potential bio-control

  • Refute the Caribbean origin of Carijoa in Hawaii, and document native status of Carijoa in Pacific

    • "[Our] discovery of the sponge Desmapsammaanchorataand the octocoralCarijoariiseion an Indonesian reef enlarges the widespread dispersion of these invasive Atlantic species in the Indo-Pacific area" Calcinai et al. 2004 JMBAUK 84:937-941.


Using genetic techniques to guide management and design of marine protected areas rob toonen

  • Recent Sea Grant Awards:

  • 2004-05 Marker development for Carijoariisei ($9,986)

  • 2004 $47,408 HURL

  • 2005 $74,933HURL

  • 2005-06 $71,910HCRI

  • 2005-06 $92,552HISC

  • 2006-07 $57,403WestPac ($344,206 total)

  • 2003-04 Marker development for Opihi ($9,992)

    • 2004-06 $88,540SeaGrant

    • 2006-07 $71,535HCRI($160,075 total)

    • 2008-10 $800,000NSF (in prep)

Supported personnel: Chris Bird

Adam Baker


Using genetic techniques to guide management and design of marine protected areas rob toonen

Resulting Publications:

Toonen, R.J. & C.B. Wee. 2005. An experimental comparison of sediment-based biological filtration designs for recirculating aquarium systems. Aquaculture 250: 244– 255.

Bird, C.J., B.S. Holland, B.W. Bowen, and R.J. Toonen. 2007. Contrasting population structure in three endemic Hawaiian limpets (Cellana spp.) with similar life histories. Molecular Ecology 16:3173-3186.

Bird, C. E. & C. M. Smith. In review. Between the waves: the effects of wave-domination on physical and biological patterns on a Hawaiian rocky shore. Limnology and Oceanography.

Bird, C.E., S. Karl & R.J. Toonen. In review. A method for standardizing estimates of Fstwithin and among studies. Evolution.

Bird, C. E., B. Holland, R. Cowie, and R. Toonen. In prep. Shell game: Geographic variation in the cryptic nature of shell characters in Cellana exarata and Cellana sandwicensis. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.

Bird, C. E. and R. J. Toonen. In prep. Identification and quantification of the larvae of three marine limpets in mixed samples using quantitative PCR. Marine Ecology Progress Series.

Bird, C. E. & C. M. Smith. In prep. Complex algal mediated indirect interactions between an Indo-pacific sea urchin and endemic Hawaiian limpet. Ecology.

Szabo, Z., B. Bowen & R.J. Toonen. In prep. Improved methods for preservation and extraction of DNA from invertebrates. Coral Reefs.


Using genetic techniques to guide management and design of marine protected areas rob toonen

Primary results from this work:

NWHI endemic Cellanamelanostomais not a valid species


Using genetic techniques to guide management and design of marine protected areas rob toonen

Primary results from this work:

NWHI endemic Cellanamelanostomais not a valid species

Management of all 3 species as a single fishery is unfounded

Population structure of each species differs dramatically among islands – each island must be managed separately


Using genetic techniques to guide management and design of marine protected areas rob toonen

Primary results from this work:

NWHI endemic Cellanamelanostomais not a valid species

Management of all 3 species as a single fishery is unfounded

Population structure of each species differs dramatically among islands – each island must be managed separately


Using genetic techniques to guide management and design of marine protected areas rob toonen

Primary results from this work:

NWHI endemic Cellanamelanostomais not a valid species

Management of all 3 species as a single fishery is unfounded

Population structure of each species differs dramatically among islands – each island must be managed separately

Use of an exemplar species to represent ecosystems for management or MPA design is highly unreliable


Using genetic techniques to guide management and design of marine protected areas rob toonen

  • Recent Sea Grant Awards:

  • 2004-05 Marker development for Carijoariisei ($9,986)

  • 2004 $47,408 HURL

  • 2005 $74,933HURL

  • 2005-06 $71,910HCRI

  • 2005-06 $92,552HISC

  • 2006-07 $57,403WestPac ($344,206 total)

  • 2003-04 Marker development for Opihi ($9,992)

    • 2004-06 $88,540SeaGrant

    • 2006-07 $71,535HCRI($160,075 total)

    • 2008-10 $800,000NSF (in prep)

  • 2006-08 Genetic diversity & abundance for MPA design ($51,716)

    • 2007-08 $69,728HISC

    • 2007-12 $1,498,879ONR (pending)

  • Supported personnel: Kim Weersing

    Matt Dunlap

    Chris Bird


    Conventional wisdom dispersal distance is positively correlated with pelagic larval duration pld

    n = 32, r2 = 0.802 (Siegel et al. 2003)

    n = 25, r2 = 0.61 (Shanks et al. 2003)

    Conventional wisdom:Dispersal distance is positively correlated with Pelagic Larval Duration (PLD).


    Using genetic techniques to guide management and design of marine protected areas rob toonen

    Resulting Publications thus far:

    Weersing, K.A. & R.J. Toonen. In review. How well does pelagic larval duration really correlate with genetic estimates of gene flow in marine systems? Ecology Letters.

    (n=135, r2 = 0.028, p = 0.063)


    Next deep reefs corals in hot water

    Next: Deep Reefs & Corals in Hot Water


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