Chapter 1. Introduction to Human Geography. Map forms Choropleth maps
These maps, where each spatial unit is filled with a uniform color or pattern. These types of maps are good for showing the dominance of a certain trait. Here is a definition I found on another website:Choropleth (colour shaded) maps. This is the most common type, and is especially appropriate for showing standardised data such as rates, densities or percentages. A different colour is used for each of a number of bands, allowing users to identify which areas have high, low or middling values. So if you want to know which area has a higher divorce rate versus areas that are less dominant with this trait. Choropleth is the best version to go with.
Isopleth maps differ from choropleth maps in that the data is not aggregated to a pre-defined unit like a political area (ie a county or a state). These maps can take two forms:
Lines of equal attribute value are drawn such that all values on one side are higher than the "isoline" value and all values on the other side are lower, or
Ranges of similar attribute value are filled with similar colors or patterns.
This type of map is used to represent continuous area data that varies smoothly over space. Temperature, for example, is a phenomenon that should be mapped using isoplething, since temperature exists at every point (is continuous), yet does not change abruptly at any point (like tax rates do as you cross into another political zone). Elevation maps should always be in isopleth form for this reason.
Simple Explanation: Isoline maps take an area that has one value and draws a line around it. For example if the temperature of Chicago's lakefront was 80 today then that area would have a line drawn around it. The area that went higher than 80 would be on the other side of that line. So each time you cross the line you are changing temperature. The lines are drawn to connect temperature zones. Isoline maps are often used for weather or elevation and each time you cross a line a number is going up or down (height, depth, temperature, etc)
Used to represent themes that vary smoothly over space but are discrete, dot maps create a visual impression of density by placing a dot or some other symbol in the approximate location of one or more instances of the variable being mapped. Dot maps should be used only for raw data, not for data normalized or expressed as a ratio. Appropriate themes for dot maps include livestock farms, utility poles, and population distribution in a region.
Dot maps help to show patterns and go along with raw data. Let's say you are looking for where crimes occur and how best to deal with them. A dot map would show you if the crimes are occurring in alleys or in parking lots or on certain streets. Each dot on the map would be a precise location and the more dots, the more the crimes are occuring in that area. This helps you to understand where crimes are occuring and to see a pattern. So dot maps go with raw data and patterns.
Why do Kenyans grow tea and coffee instead of cash crops?
A set of outcomes that are:
varying across scales
throughout the world.
without regard to
Imagine and describe the most remote place on Earth you can think of 100 years ago. Now, describe how globalization has changed this place and how the people there continue to shape the place – to make it the place it is today.
Map of Cholera Victims
in London’s Soho District
The patterns of victim’s homes and water pump locations helped uncover the source of the disease.
Where Pennsylvanian students prefer to live
Where Californian students prefer to live
Spatial interaction: the interconnectedness between places depends upon:
The visible human imprint on the landscape.
Religion and cremation practices diffuse with Hindu migrants from India to Kenya.
ancient Agora surrounded by modern buildings
Apartment in Mumbai, India
Apartment in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Geographers who practice fieldwork keep their eyes open to the world around them and through practice become adept at reading cultural landscapes. Take a walk around your campus or town and try reading the cultural landscape. Choose one thing in the landscape and ask yourself, “what is that and why is it there?” Take the time to find out the answers!
Tell a story about the degree of an attribute, the pattern of its distribution, or its movement.
What are thematic maps used for?
What are reference maps used for?
What story about median income in the Washington, DC area is this map telling?
Give a friend or family member a blank piece of paper. Ask the person to draw a detailed map of how he or she gets from home to the place where most of his or her weekdays are spent (work, school). Note the age of the person and the length of time he or she has lived in the place and traveled the route. Analyze the map for terra incognita, landmarks, paths, and accessibility. What does the map reveal about the person’s lifestyle and activity space?
Processes operating at different scales influence one another.
What is occurring across scales provides context for us to understand a phenomenon.
People can use scale politically to change who is involved or how an issue is perceived.
e.g. Zapatistas rescale their movement
e.g. laws jump scales, ignoring cultural differences
The meanings of regions are often contested. In Montgomery, Alabama, streets named after Confederate President Jefferson Davis and Civil Rights leader Rosa Parks intersect.
Photo credit: Jonathan Leib
Because Hindus believe cows are holy, cows often roam the streets in villages and towns. The McDonalds restaurants in India feature veggie burgers.
Photo credit: H.J. de Blij
Photo credit: A.B. Murphy
Once you think about different types of diffusion, you will be tempted to figure out what kind of diffusion is taking place for all sorts of goods, ideas, or diseases. Please remember any good, idea or disease can diffuse in more than one way. Choose a good, idea, or disease as an example and describe how it diffused from its hearth across the globe, referring to at least three different types of diffusion.
New Approaches to
Create a strong (false) statement about a people and their environment using either environmental determinism or possibilism. Determine how the statement you wrote is false, taking into consideration the roles of culture, politics, and economy in human-environment relations.