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Chapter 11 Global Cost and Availability of Capital. Chapter 11 Global Cost & Availability of Capital. Learning Objectives Show how a firm headquartered in a country with an illiquid and segmented capital market achieves a lower global cost of and greater availability of capital

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Chapter 11 Global Cost and Availability of Capital

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Chapter 11 global cost and availability of capital

Chapter 11

Global Cost and Availability of Capital


Chapter 11 global cost availability of capital

Chapter 11Global Cost & Availability of Capital

  • Learning Objectives

    • Show how a firm headquartered in a country with an illiquid and segmented capital market achieves a lower global cost of and greater availability of capital

    • Analyze the linkage between cost and availability of capital

    • Evaluate the effect of market liquidity and segmentation on the cost of capital

    • Compare the weighted average cost of capital for an MNE with its domestic counterpart


Global cost availability of capital

Global Cost & Availability of Capital

  • Global integration of capital markets has given many firms access to new and cheaper sources of funds beyond those available in their home market

  • A firm that must source its long-term debt and equity in a highly illiquid domestic securities market will probably have a relatively high cost of capital and will face limited availability of such capital

  • This in turn will limit the firm’s ability to compete both internationally and vis-à-vis foreign firms entering its market


Global cost availability of capital1

Global Cost & Availability of Capital

  • Firms resident in small capital markets often source their long-term debt and equity at home in these partially-liquid domestic markets

  • The costs of funds is slightly better than that of illiquid markets, however, if these firms can tap the highly liquid international capital markets, their competitiveness can be strengthened

  • Firms resident in segmented capital markets must devise a strategy to escape dependence on that market for their long-term debt and equity needs


Global cost availability of capital2

Global Cost & Availability of Capital

  • A national capital market is segmented if the required rate of return on securities differs from the required rate of return on securities of comparable expected return and risk traded on other securities markets

  • Capital markets become segmented because of such factors as excessive regulatory control, perceived political risk, anticipated FOREX risk, lack of transparency, asymmetric information, cronyism, insider trading and other market imperfections


Global cost availability of capital3

Global Cost & Availability of Capital

  • Firms constrained by any of these above conditions must develop a strategy to escape their own limited capital markets and source some of their long-term capital needs abroad


Global cost availability of capital4

Local Market Access

Global Market Access

Firm-Specific Characteristics

Firm’s securities appeal only

to domestic investors

Firm’s securities appeal to

international portfolio investors

Market Liquidity for Firm’s Securities

Highly liquid domestic market and

broad international participation

Illiquid domestic securities market

and limited international liquidity

Effect of Market Segmentation on Firm’s Securities and Cost of Capital

Access to global securities market

that prices shares according to

international standards

Segmented domestic securities

market that prices shares

according to domestic standards

Global Cost & Availability of Capital


Weighted average cost of capital

Weighted Average Cost of Capital

Where

kWACC = weighted average cost of capital

ke = risk adjusted cost of equity

kd = before tax cost of debt

t = tax rate

E = market value of equity

D = market value of debt

V = market value of firm (D+E)


Cost of equity and debt

Cost of Equity and Debt

  • Cost of equity is calculated using the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

Where

ke = expected rate of return on equity

krf = risk free rate on bonds

km = expected rate of return on the market

β = coefficient of firm’s systematic risk

  • The normal calculation for cost of debt is analyzing the various proportions of debt and their associated interest rates for the firm and calculating a before and after tax weighted average cost of debt


Trident s wacc

Trident’s WACC

  • Maria Gonzalez, Trident’s CFO, believes that Trident has access to global capital markets and because it is headquartered in the US, that the US should serve as its base for market risk and equity risk calculations

Where

kWACC = weighted average cost of capital

ke = Trident’s cost of equity is 17.0%

kd = Trident’s before tax cost of debt is 8.0%

t = tax rate of 35.0%

E/V = equity to value ratio of Trident is 60.0%

D/V = debt to value ratio of Trident is 40.0%


Calculating equity risk premia in practice

Calculating Equity Risk Premia in Practice

  • Using CAPM, there is rising debate over what numerical values should be used in its application, especially the equity risk premium

    • The equity risk premium is the expected average annual return on the market above riskless debt

    • Typically, the market’s return is calculated on a historical basis yet others feel that the number should be forward looking since it is being used to calculate expected returns


Chapter 11 global cost and availability of capital

Equity Market Risk PremiumsIn Selected Countries, 1900-2000


Alternative estimates of cost of equity for a hypothetical us firm

Alternative Estimates of Cost of Equity for a Hypothetical US Firm


Link between cost availability of capital

Link between Cost & Availability of Capital

  • Although no consensus exists on the definition of market liquidity, market liquidity can be observed by noting the degree to which a firm can issue new securities without depressing existing market prices

  • In a domestic case, the underlying assumption is that total availability of capital at anytime for a firm is determined by supply and demand within its domestic the market

  • In the multinational case, a firm is able to improve market liquidity by raising funds in the Euromarkets, by selling securities abroad, and by tapping local capital markets


Market segmentation

Market Segmentation

  • Capital market segmentation is a financial market imperfection caused mainly by government constraints, institutional practices, and investor perceptions

  • Other imperfections are

    • Asymmetric information

    • High securities transaction costs

    • Foreign exchange risks

    • Political risks

    • Corporate governance differences

    • Regulatory barriers


Effects of market liquidity segmentation

Effects of Market Liquidity & Segmentation

  • The degree to which capital markets are illiquid or segmented has an important influence on a firm’s marginal cost of capital

  • An MNE has a given marginal return on capital at differing budget levels determined by which capital projects it can and chooses to take on

  • If the firm is limited to raising funds in its domestic market, it has domestic marginal cost of capital at various budget levels


Effects of market liquidity segmentation1

Effects of Market Liquidity & Segmentation

  • If an MNE has access to additional sources of capital outside its domestic market, its marginal cost of capital can decrease

  • If the MNE has unlimited access to capital both domestic and abroad, then its marginal cost of capital decreases even further


Effects of market liquidity segmentation2

Marginal cost of capital

and rate of return (percentage)

MCCF

MCCU

MCCD

kD

20%

kF

15%

kU

13%

MRR

10%

Budget

(millions of $)

10

20

30

40

50

60

Effects of Market Liquidity & Segmentation


Novo industri a s

Novo Industri A/S

  • Illustrative case of a Danish multinational that sought to internationalize its capital structure by accessing foreign capital markets

  • Novo Industri is a Danish industrial enzyme and pharmaceutical firm

  • In 1977 the management sought to tap in to other capital markets because the Danish market was illiquid and segmented causing Novo to incur a higher cost of capital than that of its international competitors


Novo industri a s1

Novo Industri A/S

  • The Danish equity markets had at least six factors of market segmentation

    • Asymmetric information for Danish and foreign investors

    • Taxation

    • Alternative sets of feasible portfolios

    • Financial risk

    • Foreign exchange risk

    • Political risk


Novo industri a s2

Novo Industri A/S

  • Asymmetric information

    • Denmark had a regulation that prohibited Danish investors from holding foreign private sector securities

      • This left little incentive for Danish investors to seek out new information or follow developments in other markets

    • Another barrier was the lack of equity analysts in Denmark following Danish companies


Novo industri a s3

Novo Industri A/S

  • Taxation

    • Danish taxation policy charged a capital gains tax of 50% on shares held for over two years

    • Shares held for less than two years were taxed at a marginal income tax rate as high as 75%

    • This led to bonds being the security of choice among Danes

  • Feasible set of portfolios

    • Because of the prohibition on foreign security ownership, Danish investors had a limited set of securities from which to choose

    • Danish stocks offered international investors an opportunity to diversify, but not the reciprocal for Danish investors


Novo industri a s4

Novo Industri A/S

  • Financial, Foreign exchange and political risks

    • Danish firms were highly leveraged relative to US and UK standards with most debt being short-term

    • Foreign investors were subject to foreign exchange risk but this was not a big obstacle for investment

    • Denmark was very stable politically


Novo industri a s5

Novo Industri A/S

  • The Road to Globalization

    • When Novo’s management decided to access foreign equity markets in 1977 they had several barriers to overcome

    • Closing the information gap: Novo now needed to begin disclosing their financials in accordance with international standards

    • In 1979 Novo had a successful Eurobond issues which lead to more disclosure and international recognition among investors


Novo industri a s6

Novo Industri A/S

  • The Road to Globalization

    • During 1979, Novo also listed its convertibles on the London Stock Exchange (LSE)

    • Also during that year there was a big boom in biotechnology and Novo went to the US to sell investors on their company

    • The road show worked and Novo’s shares on the Danish exchange and the LSE rose in price from increased demand

    • This prompted Novo to consider an equity issue in the US


Novo industri a s7

Novo Industri A/S

  • The Road to Globalization

    • During the first half of 1981 Novo prepared an SEC registration

    • Before the offering over 50% of Novo’s shareholders had become foreign investors

    • On May 30, 1981 Novo listed in the NYSE and although it had lost 10% of its value in Copenhagen the previous day, the $61 million offering was a success and the share price quickly gained all its losses from the previous day


Cost of capital for mnes versus domestic firms

Cost of Capital for MNEs versus Domestic Firms

  • Is the WACC or an MNE higher or lower than for its domestic counterpart?

    • The answer is a function of

      • The marginal cost of capital

      • The after-tax cost of debt

      • The optimal debt ratio

      • The relative cost of equity

  • An MNE should have a lower cost of capital because it has access to a global cost and availability of capital

  • This availability and cost allows the MNE more optimality in capital projects and budgets compared to its domestic counterpart


Cost of capital for mnes versus domestic firms1

Marginal cost of capital

and rate of return (percentage)

MCCDC

20%

MCCMNE

15%

10%

MRRMNE

5%

MRRDC

Budget

(millions of $)

100

140

300

350

400

Cost of Capital for MNEsversus Domestic Firms


Cost of capital for mnes versus domestic firms2

]

[

]

[

Debt

Equity

kWACC = ke

+ kd ( 1 – tx )

Is MNEwacc > or < Domesticwacc ?

Value

Value

Empirical studies indicate MNEs have a lower debt/capital ratio than domestic counterparts indicating MNEs have a higher cost of capital.

And indications are that MNEs have a lower average cost of debt than domestic counterparts, indicating MNEs have a lower cost of capital.

The cost of equity required by investors is higher for multinational firms than for domestic firms. Possible explanations are higher levels of political risk, foreign exchange risk, and higher agency costs of doing business in a multinational managerial environment. However, at relatively high levels of the optimal capital budget, the MNE would have a lower cost of capital.

Cost of Capital for MNEsversus Domestic Firms


Summary of learning objectives

Summary of Learning Objectives

  • Gaining access to global capital markets should allow a firm to lower its cost of capital. A firm can improve access to global capital markets by increasing the market liquidity of its shares and by escaping its home capital market

  • The costs and availability of capital is directly linked to the degree of market liquidity and segmentation. Firms having access to markets with high liquidity and low segmentation should have a lower cost of capital


Summary of learning objectives1

Summary of Learning Objectives

  • A firm is able to increase its market liquidity by raising debt in the Euromarket, by selling issues in individual national markets and by tapping capital markets through foreign subsidiaries

  • This causes the marginal cost of capital to lower for a firm and it results in a firm’s ability to raise even more capital

  • A national capital market is segmented if the required rate of return on securities in that market differs from the required rate of return on securities of comparable return and risk that are traded in other national capital markets


Summary of learning objectives2

Summary of Learning Objectives

  • The most important imperfections are asymmetric information, transaction costs, foreign exchange risk, political risk, corporate governance differences, and regulatory barriers

  • Segmentation results in a higher cost of capital and less availability of capital


Summary of learning objectives3

Summary of Learning Objectives

  • If a firm is resident in a segmented capital market, it can still escape from this market by sourcing its debts and equity abroad. The result should be a lower marginal cost of capital, improved liquidity for its securities, and a larger capital budget

  • Whether or not MNEs have a lower cost of capital than their domestic counterparts depends on their optimal financial structures, systematic risk, availability of capital, and the level of optimal capital budget


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