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EUMETSAT. Monitoring weather and climate from space. EUMETSAT objectives. The primary objective is to establish, maintain and exploit European systems of operational meteorological satellites.

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EUMETSAT

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Eumetsat

EUMETSAT

Monitoring weather and climate from space


Eumetsat objectives

EUMETSAT objectives

  • The primary objective is to establish, maintain and exploit European systems of operational meteorological satellites.

  • A further objective is to contribute to the operational monitoring of the climate as well as the detection of global climatic changes.

  • Furthermore, environmental issues which drive or are driven by meteorological conditions are considered.


Eumetsat s mission is

EUMETSAT’s mission is….

  • To deliver operational satellite data and products that satisfy the meteorological and climate data requirements of its Member States - 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, through decades.

  • This is carried out taking into account the recommendations of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).


25 member states 5 cooperating states

25* Member States & 5 Cooperating States

  • Member States

*CZECH REPUBLIC

CROATIA

AUSTRIA

BELGIUM

FINLAND

GERMANY

FRANCE

DENMARK

GREECE

HUNGARY

ITALY

IRELAND

NETHERLANDS

NORWAY

LUXEMBOURG

LATVIA

SLOVAK REPUBLIC

SLOVENIA

POLAND

PORTUGAL

SWEDEN

SWITZERLAND

TURKEY

SPAIN

Cooperating States

UNITED KINGDOM

* Pending full ratification

BULGARIA

ESTONIA

ICELAND

LITHUANIA

ROMANIA


Satellite application facilities safs in europe

Member State

Cooperating State

6

7

4

3

2

1

5

8

Satellite Application Facilities (SAFs) in Europe

Support to Nowcasting and Very Short Range Forecasting

Ocean and Sea Ice

Climate Monitoring

Numerical Weather Prediction

Land Surface Analysis

Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring

GRAS Meteorology

Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management

SAF Consortium Member

Additional Met Service Users


Global meteorological satellite system

Global meteorological satellite system


Eumetsat space segment

EUMETSAT space segment

30

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

METEOSAT FIRST GENERATION

METEOSAT-6

METEOSAT-7

METEOSAT SECOND GENERATION

METEOSAT-8

METEOSAT-9

METEOSAT-10

METEOSAT-11

METEOSAT THIRD GENERATION

EUMETSAT POLAR SYSTEM

METOP-A

METOP-B

METOP-C

POST-EPS

OCEAN SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY MISSION

JASON-2

JASON-3

JASON FOLLOW-ON

THIRD PARTY PROGRAMMES

GMES SENTINEL-3A/B

GMES SENTINEL-4

GMES SENTINEL-5


Geostationary satellites

Geostationary satellites

Meteosat Second Generation (MSG)

  • consists of a series of four geostationary weather satellites

  • is scheduled to operate consecutively until 2018

  • provides important image data on European weather on a daily basis, every 15 minutes through 12 spectral bands

  • Meteosat-9 (in operation since 2006) provides data collection and environmental monitoring data

  • Meteosat-8 (in operation since 2004) provides Rapid Scan Service (RSS) since May 2008

  • RSS delivers image data and meteorological products for the detection of rapidly developing localised convective weather systems.


Eumetsat s geostationary satellite coverage

EUMETSAT’s geostationary satellite coverage

60 N

Meteosat-9 (0° Longitude)

Meteosat-8 (9.5° E)

0

Meteosat-7 (57.5° E)

Meteosat-6 (67.5° E)

60 S

80

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

20

40

60

100

120

140

160

180


Polar orbiting satellites

Polar-orbiting satellites

EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS)

  • is Europe’s first series of polar-orbiting satellites for operational meteorology

  • consists of three Metop in low Earth orbit to operate over a period of at least 14 years.

  • Metop-A (in operation since 2007)

  • carries imaging and sounding instruments

  • has direct broadcasting and data collection capabilities

  • significantly contributes to the Global Observing System and the monitoring of climate and atmospheric chemistry.

  • EPS data

  • are of unprecedented accuracy

  • are used in various applications such as Numerical Weather Prediction models, cloud detection analysis or radiation budget components.


Monitoring the oceans

Monitoring the oceans

Jason-2

  • was launched in June 2008 from Vandenberg, California

  • is EUMETSAT’s first optional programme on ocean altimetry.

  • has enabled EUMETSAT to extend its expertise in data and product dissemination for weather forecasting and climate monitoring

  • through the inclusion of data in support of marine meteorology, operational oceanography, seasonal prediction and climate monitoring.


Ascat instrument on metop

ASCAT Instrument on Metop

  • C-Band scatterometer

  • Measures:

    • Ocean wind speed and direction

    • Soil moisture

    • Ice properties

  • Calibration using a ground-based transponder network to ensure consistent performance over 14+ years of mission


Ascat ocean wind products

ASCAT Ocean wind products

  • Ocean and Sea Ice SAF produces operational ASCAT wind vectors at 25 km and 12.5 km spatial sampling

ASCAT wind speed product visualisation, 28/10/2009


Ascat use in numerical weather prediction

ASCAT use in Numerical Weather Prediction

  • ASCAT Sigma-0 triplets are used at ECMWF since 12/06/2007

  • Used/daySTDV(SCAT–FGAT)

  • QuikSCAT ~120k/4 1.3 m/s 14 deg

  • ASCAT ~30k 1.3 m/s 14 deg

Comparison of ASCAT measurement with First Guess at Appropriate Time (FGAT) over the period 10/2007-09/2009

Left: Wind speed scatter plot

Right: Wind direction scatter plot

Figures courtesy of Hans Hersbach, ECMWF


Ascat use in ocean prediction centre

ASCAT use in Ocean Prediction Centre

  • Identify weather features

    • Lows, highs, fronts

      • Intensity

      • Trends

  • Marine wind warnings

    • Issue, continue, terminate

      • One category lower compared to QS

      • Rarely detects HF conditions

  • Short term marine forecasts

    • Aerial coverage of winds

  • Real-time Verification

    • Comparison to NWP analyses

      • Feature intensity

Slide content courtesy of Zorana Jelenak, NOAA


Ascat use in typhoon tracking

ASCAT use in typhoon tracking

In addition to the increase of data coverage, assimilation of less contaminated winds by rainfall has positive impact on typhoon position forecasts.

Slide content courtesy of Masaya Takahashi, JMA

9-day typhoon position forecast for typhoon FITOW

-: QuikSCAT

-: ASCAT

-: ASCAT and QuikSCAT

-: No Scatterometer

-: Analyzed Track

Initial:

12UTC 07/08/28

QC-passed (blue) and rejected (red) winds

QuikSCAT

(Initial: 06UTC 07/08/28)

ASCAT

(Initial: 12UTC 07/08/28)

Tokyo ★

Assimilated winds QuikSCATASCAT


Ascat soil moisture index product

ASCAT Soil Moisture Index Product

  • Product developed by Tech. University of Vienna for EUMETSAT/Hydrology SAF, operational since 11/2008


Jason 2 product characteristics

Jason-2 Product characteristics


Jason 2 significant wave height product

Jason-2

Jason-1

Jason-2 Significant Wave Height Product

Global comparison between Ku-Band and ECMWF wave model (WAM) first-guess SWH values (ECMWF, From 01 August to 31 October 2008)


Jason 2 wind speed product

Jason-2

Jason-1

Jason-2 Wind speed product

Global comparison between altimeter and ECMWF model analysis wind speed values (ECMWF, From 01 August to 31 October 2008)


Jason 2 coastal application

Jason-2 Coastal application

  • DEM/DIODE tracking mode

Comparison of the number of waveforms over the Amazon river

Top: Jason-2 tracker configured as for Jason-1

Middle: median tracker

Bottom: Diode/DEM mode with on orbit ephemeris coupled with DEM


Jason 2 summary

Jason-2 Summary

  • Assimilation of Jason-2 significant wave heights in the ECMWF model has a positive impact on the model forecasts.

  • The NRT products (OGDR) from Jason-2 are operational since December, 2008

  • Jason-1 and Jason-2 were shifted apart by ca. a half orbit in February, 2009, and thereafter both data-streams are assimilated operationally as long as Jason-1 is still alive


Sentinel series sentinel 3

Sentinel-3

SENTINEL SERIES: Sentinel-3

  • The Sentinels Series: Operational satellites to meet the Earth Observation needs of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme.

  • Sentinel-1: C-band SAR

  • Sentinel-2: Superspectral (Land)

  • Sentinel-3: Ocean

  • Sentinel-4/-5: Atmospheric Chemistry

  • The pair of Sentinel-3 satellites will provide global, frequent and near-real time ocean, ice and land monitoring.


Sentinel 3 product priorities

Sentinel-3: Product Priorities

  • Ocean:

  • – Sea-Surface Temperature

  • – Sea Surface Topography

  • – Ocean Colour

  • Land:

  • – Land Surface Temperature

  • – Land Surface Biophysical Properties

Products processed in Near Real Time by EUMETSAT

Products processed by ESA


Sentinel 3 key payload

Sentinel-3: Key Payload

  • SLSTR: Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer

  • SRAL: Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter

  • OLCI: Ocean and Land Colour Instrument

  • MWR: MicroWave Radiometer

  • LRR: Laser Retro-Reflector

Launch Configuration


Instruments and ocean products

Instruments and Ocean Products

Sea Surface Temperature: (SST)

Altimeter products:

Sea Surface Height, (SSH), Sea Ice (SI)

Significant Wave Height (SWH)

Surface Wind Speeds (SWS)

Altimetry support:

(ionosphere, troposhere corrections,

Precise Orbit Determination)

Ocean Colour:

ocean Chlorophyll (Chl),

yellow substance (YS)

Suspended Sediment,

SLSTR:

(ENVISAT AATSR Follow-on)

SRAL:

(CRYOSAT based)

MWR: MicroWave Radiometer

LRR : Laser Retro-Reflector

OLCI:

(MERIS Follow-on)


Instruments and land products

Instruments and Land Products

SLSTR:

(ENVISAT AATSR Follow-on)

OLCI:

(MERIS Follow-on)

SRAL:

(CRYOSAT based)

Lake Aral Variations


Eumetsat

NWP Forecast Systems: ECMWF example

Atmospheric model

Atmospheric model

Wave model

Wave model

Ocean model

Real Time Ocean Analysis ~8 hours

Delayed Ocean Analysis ~12 days

ECMWF:

Weather and Climate Dynamical Forecasts

10-Day

Medium-Range

Forecasts

Seasonal

Forecasts

Monthly

Forecasts


Atmosphere wave model two way coupling

Atmosphere-Wave Model two-way coupling

10-Day

Medium-Range

Forecasts

"Two-way interaction of wind and waves may either deepen or fill an atmospheric low."

Atmospheric model

SRAL

10 meter Model Winds

Sentinel 3 - SRAL: Wind Speeds for validation

Aerodynamic Surface Roughness

based on 2D Model Wave Spectrum

Time

Wave model

[Janssen ECMWF]

Sentinel 3-SRAL: Significant Wave Heights for assimilation in Wave Model

Ocean model


Satellite altimeter data impact on wave prediction

Atmospheric model

Wave model

Satellite Altimeter data impact on wave prediction

RMS Model SWH differences (m)

high impact

SRAL

Impact studies, comparing

'with' and 'without'

altimetry

SWH assimilation

=>

Better predictions with

a constellation of

Satellite altimeters

no impact

Aouf et al. 2004, Météo-France.


Sea surface temperature and sea ice

Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice

"SST and Sea-Ice play an important role in determining the behaviour of the overlying atmosphere."

Atmospheric model

Wave model

Ocean model

SLSTR

SRAL

ECMWF: ERA40 Annual Net Surface Heat Exchange


Ostia sst at met office

OSTIA SST at Met Office

  • NWP SST didn’t capture the warming.

OSTIA = OSI SAF SST Products

+ AATSR

OSTIA – NWP SST

NWP Bias 925hPa, 48hr forecasts

SLSTR

After:

John Stark

Medspiration, Workshop 2007


August trial results

August Trial Results…

  • OSTIA SSTs substantially reduced the negative bias seen with NWP SSTs at 850hPa.

  • OSTIA now fully operational, relying on supply of OSI SAF and AATSR data.

    • All Met Office forecasts now use OSTIA SST.

-0.05

OSTIA SSTs

Mean Error (K)

NWP SSTs

SLSTR

-0.30

Forecast Range ( to 5 days)

UK Met Office


Sst and wind and storms

Atmospheric model

Wave model

Ocean model

SST and Wind and Storms

"Sea Surface Eddies determine the Turbulent Air-Sea Interactions"

SLSTR

[Chelton 2006:] SeaWinds Wind and AMSR SST Data 2002 -2003

Contours:

Surface Surface Temperature

Colours:

Surface Wind Stress

GOAL:

Improve the modelling of boundary layer mixing in the ECMWF model with Satellite Data.

SRAL


Case study hurricane dean 2007 winds

Case Study: Hurricane Dean 2007 (winds)

SLSTR

Coupled with

Ocean

Uncoupled with

Ocean

SRAL

Figures courtesy of NOAA


Osi saf operational sst products

OSI-SAF:Operational SST Products

"EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice SAF products are

addressing both the NWP and Ocean Communities"

Ocean model

Atmospheric model

OSI SAF Operational L2P SST Products

OSI SAF GRIB Operational SST Products

SLSTR

! Sentinel-3 SLSTR: Continuation, Improvements Validation of OSI SAF SST Products


Operational sea ice products

Operational Sea Ice Products

Atmospheric model

Ocean model

OSI SAF Sea Ice Products:

Various regions, various formats

type

concentration

edge

! Sentinel-3 SRAL: Continuation, Improvements Validation of OSI SAF Sea Ice Products

SRAL


Sea surface height constellation of altimeters

Sea Surface Height: Constellation Of Altimeters

NW-Atlantic

Blue: Sentinel-3

Black: Jason

Sentinel-3:

Longer Repeat Cycle, More Coverage:

=> Dedication to Model applications

Jason-1,2,..:

Short Repeat Cycle, Non Sun-Synchronous:

=> Reference Mission for Climate Record of Sea Level Rise

SRAL


Seasonal forecasting ecmwf buoys and altimeters

Seasonal Forecasting ECMWF: Buoys and Altimeters

  • Observing systems are complementary:

  • • Altimeter has largest impact in Eastern Pacific and Atlantic

  • •Argo has largest impact in Western Pacific/Indian Ocean

SRAL

NSTRATL

TROPAC

NINO3

NINO12

NINO4

EQIND

Courtesy. M. Balmaseda (ECMWF), 2007


Eumetsat

ECMWF Ocean Model: Effects on currents

No Data Assimilation

Assimilation:Temp+Sal

SRAL

Assimilation:T+S+Alt

Correlation with OSCAR currents (taken as truth)

Monthly means, period: 1993-2005

Seasonal cycle removed


Sentinel 3 climate contributions

Sentinel-3: Climate Contributions

EUMETSAT: Hurricane Dean:

20.08.2007

IPCC:2007

  • Cross-Calibrations => Sentinel-3 contributing to Sea Level Rise Monitoring

Red: tide gauges reconstructed

Blue: Coastal Tide Gauges

Black: Sat altimetry

SLSTR

SRAL

Red: Topex/Poseidon

Blue: Coastal Tide Gauges

Green: Jason

WCRP:

A warmer ocean can contribute to more intense hurricanes.

Leuliette et. al. 2004 (re-newed)


Sentinel 3 summary

Sentinel-3

Sentinel-3: Summary

  • High Quality Sea Surface Temperature.

  • Sea-ice Measurements similar to those from CryoSat-2

  • Complement the Jason ocean altimeter series.

    • Mainly for ocean model applications

    • Contributions to Sea Level Rise Climate Record

    • Lake Monitoring

  • Various Land and Inland Surface Parameters.

  • Ocean Colour


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