Protecting Lives and Property at Our Coastlines
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Protecting Lives and Property at Our Coastlines A Disaster Roundtable Workshop The National Academies. National Marine Sanctuary Foundation Capitol Hill Ocean Week. The Economy of US Coastal Communities. Our. Dr. Judith T. Kildow, Director and PI The National Ocean Economics Program

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Protecting Lives and Property at Our Coastlines

A Disaster Roundtable Workshop

The National Academies

National Marine Sanctuary Foundation

Capitol Hill Ocean Week

The Economy of US Coastal Communities


Dr. Judith T. Kildow, Director and PI

The National Ocean Economics Program

The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute

June 6, 2007

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  • Contribution

  • Trends

  • Uniqueness

  • Challenges

  • What to do

  • Summary

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Coastal counties contribute 45% to the US economyBUTThey are at risk

Our Coasts Drive the Nation

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The Contribution 2005

  • US CoastalCounty Economy = $5.6 Trillion

  • US Coastal State Economy = $10.3 Trillion

  • US Total Economy = $12.4 Trillion

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US Coastal Counties 2005

50% of Jobs

55% of Wages

45% of GSP

50% of Population

50% of Housing

All on 7.6% of Land

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County Sector Contributions 2004

Coastal Leisure and Hospitality$340 Billion to US Economy 10 million Jobs Average wage - $10,500

Trade, Transportation, and Utilities

$950 Billion

11 million Jobs

Average wage - $37,000

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Economic Trends

  • Industry shifts

    • Manufacturing and production to services

    • Tourism and Transportation increasing

    • Fishing, offshore minerals, ship building decreasing

  • Demographic shifts

    • Bifurcated population between rich and poor

    • Second homes growing and changing communities

  • Environmental impacts affecting economy

    • Climate change: sea level rise - erosion,

    • warming- toxic blooms, intense storms - floods

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  • Declining fishing communities

  • New industries substituting

    • Whale watching

    • Wildlife viewing

Small communities of cottages turned to mansion strongholds

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Extraordinary natural assets

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UniquenessExposure to increased natural hazards

Toxic Blooms



(Griggs photo)

Intense Storms

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How to live with

  • Natural Hazards

    • Erosion

    • Floods

    • Sea Level Rise

    • Natural resource threats

      • Toxic blooms

      • Shifting ecosystems

  • Ocean response to climate change

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Florida at Risk

Ocean Warming

Sea Level Rise

Vero Beach, Florida

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Florida Shoreline Counties 2004

4% of US Economy

(.5 trillion $)

0.33% of US Land

68% of state GSP

67% of state Jobs

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11% of US economy

1.1% of US land area

79% of state jobs

83% of state GSP

75% of state residents

25% of state land area

4% of US economy

.33% of US land area

67% of state jobs

68% of state GSP

77% of state residents

56% of state lands

Coastal County Comparison



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Gulf Coastal Counties

5% of US Economy

1.4% of US Land Area

29% of Gulf Economy

27% of Gulf jobs

29% of Gulf States GSP

27.2% Of People

11.2%of Gulf state lands

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From Human Activities

  • Controlling Population growth

  • Affordable housing

  • Seasonal demands and downside of tourism

  • Expanding transportation and other infrastructure

  • Protecting built infrastructure

    • Power plants, sewage treatment, communications

  • Protecting fresh water supplies from saltwater intrusion

  • And more…….

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National Security/Economies at Risk

Offshore Minerals

Pebble Beach

18th hole


Real Estate (griggs photo)



Nuclear Power

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Size of the Coastal Economy2005

Coastal States:$10.3 trillion GSP (83% of US)

~ 106 million jobs

~ $4.5 trillion in wages

Coastal Counties:$5.6 trillion GSP (45% of US)

~ 54 million jobs

~ $2 trillion in wages

US Coastal Tourism:$340 billion GSP

~ 10 million jobs

~ $105 billion in wages

US Coastal Trade, Transportation, and Utilities: $950 billion GSP

~ 11 million jobs

~ $407 billion in wages

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What to Do

  • Divert economic and population growth inland

  • Control growth at the coast

  • Diversify coastal economies

  • Balance coastal economic contributions with federal government investments

  • Compensate coastal communities for large cost burden to sustain natural assets that contribute disproportionately to US economy

  • Educate people how to strengthen community economies.

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Political Will

Effective Policies to Decrease

Social and Economic

Vulnerability and Increase Strengths

Healthy Coastal Communities

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The National Ocean Economics Program

  • Sponsors

    • NOAA Coastal Services Center

    • Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute

    • The David and Lucile Packard Foundation

    • University of Southern California Wrigley Institute and USC Sea Grant

    • California State University at Monterey Bay

    • EPA Office of Water

    • Others